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The Abyssal Zone

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Sean Chua

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of The Abyssal Zone

Background photo by t.shigesa Dive deeper into the Abyssal zone The Abyssal Zone By Sean Chua and Holden Kirkconnell Table of Contents Definition
Abiotic Factors
Biotic Factors
Plant and Animal Adaptations
Threats to the Abyssal Zone
Bibliography What is the Abyssal Zone The Abyssal zone is the part of the ocean that is deeper than about 4,000 meters and shallower than about 6,000 meters, with the most invariable conditions throughout, and is the largest environment on Earth. "Abyss" derives from the Greek word , meaning bottomless. Location The Abyssal Zone is located at depths of 4,000 to 6,000 meters (13,123 to 19,685 feet) throughout the various oceans of the world, under the Bathypelagic zone and above the Hadalpelagic zone. An example of this zone would be the Pacific Abyssal Plain. Abiotic Factors Sediment on the ocean floor and salt are diffused throughout the water, after being carried by currents at the bottom. Climate This biome experiences little to no sunlight and no rainfall, making for cold temperatures of zero degrees Celsius to four degrees Celsius. Sediment Water Pressure Water Pressure is very high, causing the organisms within this biome to adapt to withstand this high pressure. The sperm whale is thought to be able to dive over 1 ½ miles below the ocean surface. One adaptation is that lungs and rib cages collapse when diving to deep depths. Biotic Factors The animals of the abyss are very unique, and include a majority of the marine inertebrates and many species of fish, like the Anglerfish, the Deep-sea glass squid, the Dumbo Octopus, Fangtooth, and the Hagfish. Detritivores like the Vampire Squid will also scavenge for dead organisms that have sunk to the abyss. Adaptations Creatures like the Anglerfish have developed bioluminescence for attracting prey, attracticing mates, and seeing through the darkness.
They have behavioral adaptations like having less movement and reproducing slower.
Bacteria have adapted by being able to produce nutrients through chemosynthesis.
High water pressure interferes with critical processes of proteins. Deep marine fishes and some invertebrates have high concentrations of a compound common in marine animals; it performs the function of maintaining proper water balance in their tissues. Threats to the Abyssal Zone Ocean dead zones, areas of the marine ecosystem in the abyss that are unable to support marine life due to low oxygen conditions. Human Threats Global warming
Dumping of waste products
Oil spills
Pollution caused by boats burning coal and oil
Mines: the chemicals that pollute the water Natural Threats Conservation Eliminate waste dumping
Oil Spill Prevention
Watch oxygen levels
Protect animal life Cthulhu, in the abyss Quiz yourself! Or else, Cthulhu will get you! http://quizlet.com/22617618/abyssal-zone-quiz-flash-cards/ Bibliography Wikipedia editor. (2011). Abyssal Zone [WebPhoto]. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abyssal_zone
Maclean, N. (Producer). (2004). Chapter 13: Evolution of Continents and Oceans [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~g105lab/images/gaia_chapter_13/oce064.gif
Susanto, H. (Producer). (2012). Sperm Whale [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.fish-journal.com/2011/11/sperm-whale.htm
Wild facts. (2010). Deep-sea glass squid [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://wild-facts.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/deep-sea-glass-squid.jpg
Kennedy, Jennifer. "Characteristics of Marine Life." About.com. About.com, n.d. Web. 29 Apr 2013.
Schultz, Terrie, and Laurie Patsalides. "The Abyssal Zone and the Ocean Deep." Brighthub.com. N.p., 5 22 2010. Web. 29 Apr 2013. http://www.brighthub.com/environment/science-environmental/articles/60013.aspx
Tyson, Peter. "NOVA." Life in the Abyss. N.p., 3 30 1999. Web. 29 Apr 2013. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/nature/life-in-the-abyss.html
Science direct. (2008). Abyssal Temperatures [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967064511001809
Owen, J. (Photographer). (2012, 9 29). Not-so-Fearsome Vampire Squid [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/09/pictures/120929-vampire-squid-deep-ocean-animals-science-monterey/
Deep Sea Photography. (2009). Deep-Sea animals - A Selection of the Best [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.deepseaphotography.com/deepsea_animals.html
Britannica. "Abyssal Zone." . Britannica, n.d. Web. 29 Apr 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/2489/abyssal-zone>.
Rowden, A. (Photographer). (2012, 11 14). Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/diagram/8960/photosynthesis-and-chemosynthesis
Wikipedia editor. (2013, April 28). Phytoplankton [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phytoplankton Sunlight penetrates no farther than a few hundred feet down, leaving the deep-sea floor as dark as the deepest cave. With no sunlight, there are no plants; all vent life belongs to the animal kingdom. And with no plants, there is no photosynthesis. However, chemosynthetic (chemoautotrophic) bacteria convert compounds such as hydrogen sulfide into organic matter, taken from hydrothermal vents. Abyssal Zone By Sean Chua and Holden Kirkconnell Presentation Plan The presentation will begin with the introduction of our presenters Sean Chua and Holden Kirkconnell. The presenters will alternate every slide. The description of the Abyssal zone will take around one minute to complete. Abiotic factors and biotic factors will take around a minute and a half to complete, and the adaptations will also take a minute and a half. Threats to the Abyssal Zone and Conservation will take us the conclusion of this presentation, and will take about two minutes.
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