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Rocks -- Rock Cycle, Igneous Rocks, Metamorphic Rocks, Sedimentary Rocks

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Steve Daughtrey

on 3 October 2011

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Transcript of Rocks -- Rock Cycle, Igneous Rocks, Metamorphic Rocks, Sedimentary Rocks

Rocks Sedimentary Rock Rock Cycle Igneous Rock A review of the processes rocks go
through and the result Conclusion metamorphic Rock A rock is a mixture of minerals, mineraloids, glass and organic material Common minerals that form rock are:
Quartz
Feldspar
Horneblende
Mica

Mix them together to form Granite Rock is always being changed.
There are eight processes for change: 1. weathering
2. erosion
3. compaction
4. cementation
5. melting
6. cooling
7. deposition
8. heating Examples of rock changing:

-sedimentary rock is heated and crushed under the surface of the earth to create metamorphic rock.
ex. shale to slate
-metamorphic rock melts and later cools to become igneous rock
-igneous rock is broke down by rain and wind (weathering) into small pieces. These pieces are stuck together to make sedimentary rock. Metamorphic means to change from one thing into another. All metamorphic rock started as another rock and through the processes of incomplete melting and pressure become something new:
Metamorphic rock. Examples:
Shale turns into

Slate Sandstone turns into Quartzite Basalt turns into Schist Granite turns into Gneiss Slate turns into Schist Metamorphic rocks can be identified by their texture Foliated: formed in the rock as parallel bands from mineral growth Non-foliated: the grain of the rock is changed but no bands form Molten Material: A thick flow ejected from volcanoes during eruption. Formed as molten material exits a volcano from deep inside the earth and cools. Why do volcanoes erupt? Pressure builds under the surface of the volcano pushing molten material upwards. At the same time, heat increases from the Earth's interior, flows upward and heats the rock of the volcano. When the temperature and pressure are just right, the rocks melt to form magma which moves toward the surface. When the magma breaches the surface it can erupt violently or non violently depending on what rock was melted and the amount of pressure. The magma is now called lava and will cool into igneous rock. Igneous rocks are classified according to where they are formed Intrusive Rock Extrusive Rock Basaltic Rock Granitic Rock Andesitic Rock Rock that forms below the surface
Characteristic: has large crystals Rock that forms at or just below Earth's surface.
Characteristics: Small mineral crystals, smooth glassy surface, or holes where gas was trapped while cooling Rocks that are dense, heavy and have a dark color.
Characteristic: contain a lot of iron and magnesium.
Can be found near volcanoes in Hawaii. Rocks that have large mineral grains.
Continental crust is made of Granitic rock.
Can range from salt and pepper to dark depending on the amount of felspar and horneblende. Named for the Andes mountain of South America, this rock is thicker than Basaltic and erupty more violently. Found around the volcanoes of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Most Earth rock is igneous rock. 75% of all rocks on the Earth's surface are sedimentary rock Sedimentary Rocks:
Form from small pieces of rock, sediments, become pressed together and cement into a larger piece. Sediments:
A combination of rock fragments, mineral grains and bits of plants and animals remains Compaction:
Rocks are formed when layers of small sediments become pushed by the weight of layers above them. Cementation:
If particles are too large to compact together, large sediments are glued together by the minerals deposited between them Detrital Sediment Rock:
Made from the broken fragments of other rocks compacted and cemented together
-- Classified according to the shape and size of the sediment Conglomerate:
Large round sediments Breccia:
Large sharp sediments Chemical Sedimentary Rocks:
Form as minerals are precipitated from a solution and left behind as the solution evaporates. Organic Sedimentary Rocks:
Rocks that form around the remains of once living things. Useful Sedimentary Rocks:
Animals such as mussles, corals, and snails contain calcite which when compacted together form limestone. Coal is also formed from sediments of dead plants and algae.
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