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On-Level Imperialism and its ties to Industrialization
Transcript of On-Level Imperialism and its ties to Industrialization
Controlling the government
and economy of a region for
one's own benefit
Usually involves the establishment
How did Industrialization
lead to imperialism?
Industrialism leads to Imperialism
New patterns of trade
and production developed
Economy further globalized as
industrialists sought raw materials and
new markets for the increasing amount
and array of trade goods available
The British Empire
Areas controlled at
one time or another by
Current British overseas
territories underlined in
Originated with trading posts in the late 16th century
At its height, was largest global empire in world history
For over a century was foremost global power
By 1922, British controlled about 458 million people, 1/5 of the world population at the time and covered nearly 1/4 of the world's land
"The Sun never sets on the British Empire"
British in India
1757-1858: British East India Company
Established trade as early as 1612 under the Mughals
Traded cotton cloth woven in India
Traded for Opium in India which was then sent to China
Direct British government control of India after Sepoy Mutiny of 1857
Sepoy Rebellion Causes
Sepoys were Indian soldiers working for the British.
Before rebellion: 200,000 Sepoys and 50,000 British
Caused by several things
British insensitivity to local customs
Belief that bullet cartridges were greased with pig and cow fat
New land tax--> food shortages
Sepoy Mutiny Outcome
Final shift of power from Islamic to Hindu hands since British saw plot as Muslim
End of the Mughal Empire
End of the British East India Company's rule
Control of India shifts to British crown
British attempt to place high caste leaders in positions of authority and to end Westernization
British in Australia
Australia was established as a settler colony
After the loss of the Americas in the American Revolution, the British needed new land colonies
Australia was chosen and instead of using slave labor, the British began to use convicts to build infrastructure
These convicts were often skilled craftsmen or farmers convicted of trivial crimes who were sentenced to 7 years labor and then pardoned
Originally provided Britain with natural resouces like Cedar
Eventually used extensively for grazing of animals and production of wool
British never were authorized to settle in Australia by the Aboriginal inhabitants
Aboriginies often resisted violently over resource competition
Aboriginies were decimated by British diseases
Land competition led to starvation of many aboriginies
British in New Zealand
The British began to colonize New Zealand in 1832 after reports of lawless white sailors in the area
The area had been inhabited for hundreds of years by South Pacific islanders called Maori
After dealing with resistance from the Maori with treaties, the British began to use the islands to produce wool.
British in China
Despite Chinese efforts to control foreign trade, British goods entered China
The Qing instituted the Canton system to limit the ports in which Europeans could trade.
Canton system also forbade direct trade between the British and Chinese civilians
The earliest recorded use of Opium in China dated to the 1400s
In 1729, the Qing emporer in China banned Opium use for anything other than medicinal purporses
The British, who wanted to find a commodoty to sell other than silver, began to supply Opium to people in China. The British got this Opium from India
Chinese people continued to become addicted to Opium.
First Opium War: 1839-1842
The Qing government began to confiscate and destroy the Opium that the British brought into China
While not arguing about China's right to control imports, the British objected to the siezure of its product
The British began further smuggling of Opium into China to balance their trade of tea
At Canton in 1839, the Chinese confiscated and destroyed a large supply of Opium
The British sent gunboats to attack
Legacy of the First Opium War
Though the Chinese outnumbered the British, they were technologically behind and unable to hold out against modern arms
The Qing lost prestige and lost support from some of their subjects
The loss of the first Opium War led to another military engagement for China: The Taiping Rebellion
What is Millenarianism?
A belief by a social, political, or religious group that a major change is coming
This change may be based on a one-thousand year cycle
How did the First Opium War lead to internal struggles in China?
Remember that the Qing were non-indigenous rulers
Many Chinese already saw them as corrupt and weak individuals
After the Chinese loss of the First Opium Wars, more Chinese began to look elsewhere for strong Chinese leadership
One of these groups began to follow a man who believed that a millenarian change was coming.
Millenairanism and the Taiping Rebellion
Hong Xiuquan was a minority Chinese citizen who had failed to pass the civil service exams several times
After failing for the final time he became ill
While ill he came under the influence of Christian missionaries in China
He began to believe that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ
Hong's goal was to create a Heavenly Kingdom on Earth
He very nearly succeeded in overthrowing the Qing Dynasty
He established a theocratic governement with its capitol in Nanjing
The kingdom had a large army and at one point controlled about 30 million people
The Qing government called the rebels longhairs
These rebels often wore red jackets, blue pants, and grew their hair long
The Taiping army also had a relatively large number of female members, distinguising it from other armies in the world at this time
A major goal was to rid China of Buddhism and Confucianism
The End of the Taiping Rebellion
Eventually, the Qing were able to crush the Taiping Rebellion with the help of British and French troops
It is still listed as one of the deadliest military conflicts in history
It is the deadliest military conflict of the 19th century
After the First Opium War, the British turned Hong Kong into a colony
In 1865, they established their first major bank there and then in Shanghai
It became known as the Hong Kong Shanghai Banking Corporation
It's purpose was to finance trade between China and Britain and it resulted in enormous profits for the British.
The Second Opium War-1856-1860
The British attempted to "negotiate" with the Chinese for the legalization of opium and for a more favored (for the British) trading agreement
The Chinese refused and in an incedent known as the Arrow Incedent, the Chinese raided a formerly British ship suspected of smuggling
Though the ship was no longer controlled by the British, it set off tensions and the British eventually used their navy to once again attach China.
Legacy of the Second Opium War
The Chinese were (once again) defeated and humiliated.
The British established Hong Kong as a colony and began to make enormous profits in China
The Chinese people questioned the ability of the Qing to rule more than ever before
China's Self-Strengthening Movement
After losing both Opium Wars, some Chinese leaders turned away from traditional Confucian ideas and began to advocate self-strengthening against the West
Including in this movement was the building of shipyards and arsenals
It also included attempts by the Chinese to learn how to manufacture these items on their own inside China
In 1900, in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion (or the Boxer Uprising), a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there.
-Ended when European powers and Japan invaded and defeated the rebels