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The Characteristics of Animals, and Its Phylums

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Samit Wells85

on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of The Characteristics of Animals, and Its Phylums

Gastrulation Cnidaria Nematoda Mollusca Chordata What Makes Animal an Animal? Motility
No cell walls Protostome and
Deuterostome Protostomes are just group of animals and together with the deuterostomes, they make up the 3 layers and the bilateral symmetry
This happens during the embryonic development or embryogenesis
During gastrulation, invagination happens, makes a blastopore. Here it would become the mouth.
Deuterostomes are similar with protostomes, but the only difference is that after invagination, the blastopore would become the anus. Recapitulation Theory Ernst Haeckel is a German biologist, who proved "Recapitulation Theory."
This theory states that "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny."
"Ontogeny" is the growth and development of embryo.
"Recapitulate" is to sum up.
"Phylogeny" is the evolutionary history of the species.
Therefore, "the development of embryo sums up the evolutionary history of the species."
Example: Human's embryo will go through all steps from a single cell organism to evolve into a human.
Haeckel found out that all vertebrates' embryos look similar, regardless of birds, reptiles, mammals, etc. True Tissues.
Radial Symmetry True Tissues
Bilateral Symmetry
Pseudocoelomates True Tissues
Bilateral Symmetry
Muscular Foot at the bottom
Shell True Tissues
Bilateral Symmetry
Segmented True Tissues
Bilateral Symmetry
Exoskeleton (Chitin) True Tissues
Bilateral Symmetry
Spinal Cord Sponges have many exceptions, but they are still animals, because
They are eukaryotes.
They can't make their own food. Chordates are ...
Protostomes - Mesoderm would split up, one sticking to ectoderm and one to endoderm. That makes a cavity. (Divergent)
Deuterostomes - Ectoderm and endoderm would form small space of cells and would slowly come together, to make a hollow space. (Convergent) The Formation Of Coelom The Characteristics of Animals, and Its Phylums By Kaito, Samit, Kanishka and Mark [Grade 9] Coeloms How Is This
Relevant To Us? We are the part of animal kingdom.
We rely on animals for food, labor, and companionship.
Scientists can help farmers to get a better breeding in order to get a better product, such as beef, pork, milk, etc.
When your pet feels sick, you can send them to a vet to see their illness. Coelom is just an empty hollow or cavity that is fluid in the mesoderm. This holds body organs to attach to each other so that they can be suspended but able to move freely.
Coelomates are the ones that has the feature of coeloms.
Pseudocoelomates are fake coelomates with loosely organized organs, and are protostomes. So they are invertebrates and microscopic.
Acoelomates are ones with no hollow space nor fluid. The mesoderm tissues hold their organs in certain places. But the tissues can squeeze the organs, whereas fluids will keep them safe. Porifera No True Tissues
No Symmetry Animalia's
Phylums Example: Sponges Example: Corals, Jellyfish, Hydras Platyhelminthes True Tissues
Bilateral Symmetry
Acoelomates Example: Flatworm, Tapeworm True Tissues
Bilateral Symmetry
Pseudocoelomates Rotifera Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development(also called embryogenesis) of most animals.
The single-layered blastula is reorganized into a trilaminar ("three-layered") structure known as the gastrula.
These three germ layers are known as the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
Ectoderm makes up: skin, nerve, spinal cord, and brain.
Endoderm makes up: digestive tract (esophagus, stomach and colon or large intestine)
Mesoderm makes up: muscles, circulatory system, reproductive system and bones. Example:
Soybean cyst nematode
(SCN) Example: Smail, Squid, Octopus Body Symmetry Animals have symmetry due to natural selection and their environment.
Sponges are asymmetrical, or no accurate shape at all.
Marine animals today are mostly radial symmetry. Therefore, they depends on wave currents or they crawl slowly to move.
Other animals have bilateral symmetry. They have the exact same left-half and right-half.
Bilateral animals developed to get cephalization, or they got nerves focused on their end, or the head. Therefore, those animals are most often active and mobile. Annalida Example: Earthworm, Leeches Arthropoda Example: Spider, Beetle, Shrimp The Formation of
Blastula And Gastrula Sperm fertilizes egg, forms haploid cell.
2 haploid cells fuse together, forming a zygote.
Zygote starts dividing, called cleaving. This division then turns into 2 > 4 > 8 > 16 > then 32 cells.
Once it becomes 32 cells, it’s called a morula (raspberry shape).
Then there would be another layer forming, making it into a blastula.
Blastula is taking a break, then gastrulation takes place.
Invagination(fold in) happens, called blastopore.
For animals with one hole (share both anus and mouth), it stops here.
For animals with two separate holes, invagination continue all the way to the other end, making a gastrula. Choanoflagellates Choanoflagellates are free-living, single-cell and colony forming eukaryotes found everywhere in aquatic environments. There are 125+ species.
Choanoflagellates must have existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living protist relatives of the sponges.
Choanoflagellate-like cells are also found in other animal phyla; in organisms such as flatworms and rotifers, for instance, choanoflagellate-like cells act as excretory organs.
Animals and fungi demonstrate that choanoflagellates are closest relative to animals. (of a group of organisms) descended from a common evolutionary ancestor or ancestral group, esp. one not shared with any other group.
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