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Black History Timeline

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Frank Jin

on 14 September 2012

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Transcript of Black History Timeline

African American History Timeline 1500s 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600s 1610 1510 1620 1630 1640 1650 1660 1670 1680 1690 1700s 1710 1720 1730 1740 1750 1760 1770 1780 1780 1790 1800s 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900s 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 1619, Slavery in America: Due to the increasing demand of labor to build and sustain the new colonies in America, European settlers enslaved Africans. A Dutch Ship docked in Jamestown carried the first slaves to america, where the captain traded them for food. They were first entitled indentured servants, the equivalent of a poor Englishman. the word "slave did not enter until about 1656 to describe the what was now common, black servant. Slaves were used for many things, but what put them at such high demand was tobacco, there was a booming tobacco industry at this time in Jamestown so there was an extremely high demand for slaves. 1793, Cotton is King: In 1793 the cotton gin was introduced by Eli Whitney. This revolutionized the cotton picking industry, increasing the productivity exponentially. This shifted the main cash crop from tobacco to cotton which had a much wider market around the world, thus increasing the demand for slaves. During this time the First Fugitive Slave Law was passed, stating that slave owners could cross state lines to hunt for fugitive slaves. 1831, Nat Turner's Revolt: During early 1831, Nat Turner caused the only Black revolt that happened in American history. It happened during a solar eclipse, when Nat turner and a few other comrades killed their owner, the Travis family, and planned to capture an armory and get supplies and new recruits to join them in a revolution. Turner's group managed to kill about 60 white men before being overwhelmed by the White militia. More than 100 innocent slaves were killed during this rebellion. Slavery rules were tightened after this rebellion. Nat Turner escaped for the first 6 weeks, before being captures and hung by the southhampton county officers. After the incident, Southhampton whites were so troubled by the rebellion that they started randomly killing Black slaves, and many were beheaded with their heads left around on the streets to warn and scare the slaves. 1831, Underground Railroad: The underground railroad was not actually a railroad. In fact, it was actually a network of people, who helped black slaves escape to the North and to Canada, and was not run by a single individual. The slaves first had to run away from their owners, and go into the "underground". They would move at night, traveling 10 or 20 miles before the next station, and try to make it to the North. These slaves were guided by previously escaped blacks as well, sometimes posing as slaves. There were many brave-hearted guides, and the most popular person known to be connected with the Railroad is Harriet Tubman. She made 19 trips and helped over 300 slaves to freedom. 1857, Dred Scott: The Dred Scott case was an intense debate over the clashes of slavery, freedom, and rights. The case was originally Dred Scott vs. Sanford, brought up to the Supreme Court, lead by Justice Roger Taney. The original problem was that Dred Scott, when his owner died, was living in Washington, and then Illinois, both of which were free states. Therefore, he believed this gave him a right to claim freedom. However, when he went to court to sue for his rights, the chief justice Taney decided that although citizens had rights, because he was African and a slave, could not become citizens and could not sue in federal court. Therefore, he remained a slave. 1859, John Brown's Raid: John Brown had opposed slavery with a passion for a number of years preceding the raid, he had helped with numerous attempts to end slavery. On the evening of October 16, 1859 he led a group of 21 men from Maryland to Harper's Ferry, Virginia to overtake a cache of weapons that they could use to establish a stronghold. they did well to fight off the soldiers at first but were eventually taken over by reinforcements. Their story was a symbol of hope to those liberated slaves and abolitionists across the nation. 1861, Civil War: The bitter conflicts between the North and the South resulted, in the spring of 1861, between the 11 seceding states of the South and the states of the North. By 1862, not even President Abe Lincoln could ignore the slavery issue any more, and he decided, after the Union's victory at Antietam, to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, the bill that said that all slaves inside the States would be free. After hostilities started to occur, the battles started, with the bloodiest war known to America, with over 35 million people dead. Especially bloody was the 3 Day battle of Gettysburg, where the Union turned out victorious, and where Lincoln gave his famous Gettysberg Address. The results were that although blacks were "free:, they were stll segregated and limited from rights. 1865, Post Slavery South: the victory of the Union over the Confederates marked the freedom of four-million slaves, thrusting America into the reconstruction era. During this time the Thirteenth Amendment would be put in place, abolishing slavery. White Southerners gradually regained their political power during this time and created freedom restricting laws known as black codes. The white proactive group named Ku Klux Klan also came to power at this time. 18890 1896, Separate but Equal: The Separate but Equal doctrine was established by the Supreme Court in 1896. It stated that it was okay for places to have separate accommodations for the different races, as long as they were equal. It was ruled that segregation was not discrimination, as long as they were provided equal facilities. However, this angered many people because they thought it was unconstitutional and that the doctrine was, in reality, not equal for the blacks. Homer PLessy looked white, but he was black because. He brought up the court case that made this happen. This law did not change America for the better- and any equality blacks received with the 15th amendment was shot down with this ruling. 1900, WEB Dubois & George Washington Carter: By the 1900s, many African Americans turned to education to escape from their suffering past. Many set George Washington Carver as an example, who convinced southern farmers to turn to farming beans and peanuts to relieve the exhausted soil. He also invented Peanut butter, and many other uses for peanuts, and even gained the respect of the Whites, many of them considering him a modest industrious Black man. WEB Dubois wrote a book called "Souls of Black Folk" that encouraged many many people to stand up for their rights. 1909, NAACP Founded: The NAACP contributed immensely to the Civil Rights movement. It began with a white rampage through a city destroying all black homes and property in their wake, this caused William Walling to host a conference of civil rights activists. AMong them was WEB Du Bois, Walter White, James Johnson, and Charles Houston. From there the organization skyrocketed, drastically changing the tide in the everlasting battle of equal rights. 1916, Marcus Garvey: Born in Jamaica, Marcus Garvey started a group there called UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) in 1914. Two years later, he brought the organization to America, claiming that the racism in the White population was so deeply embedded that there was no choice for African Americans but to flee from the U.S and back into Africa. There was a lot of opposition to this view, including from some notable African Americans like W.E.B Dubois. By 1912, Garvey launched an organization called "Black Star Line" that would allow easier trade between blacks and whites. Garvey bluffed about having about 4-6 million members in UNIA, and held the first International UNIA Convention in Madison Square Garden. There, he convinced many new followers, and created many opposing forces, like WEB Dubois, who called him "the Most Dangerous of the Negro Race in America." In 1923, he got accused of commiting a mail fraud with the Black Star Line and was charged with 2 years in Jail, and later got deported, and died in london. 1941, Blacks in World War 2: Many blacks fought in WWII for what was known as the four freedoms- the freedom of speech, press, religion, and fear. The blacks not only fought to win the war, but to win the war on racism as well. This was called the Double V strategy. Maintaining morale in the black camps was difficult due to the amount of discrimination they faced. Therefore, in July of 1948, President Truman finally stated for there to be equality and treatment for all persons of nationality, race, etc. 1954, Brown vs. Board of Education: This was the reverse to the separate but equal doctrine. The court declared that the racial segregation of blacks in school violated the 14th amendment's mandate of equal protection of the laws in the U.S. Constitution. The Chief Justice declared that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal, because segregating black children from others generates a feeling of inferiority that may never be undone. After this ruling, there was a Southern manifesto. 1955, Emmett Till: Emmett Till was visiting family in Money, Mississippi. The fourteen year old boy went to the grocery store where he allegedly flirted with a white cashier. Three days after the incident the cashier's husband and half brother kidnapped the boy where they proceeded to beat him mercilessly and shot him. The body was mutilated beyond recognition and when the men were tried for murder they were found innocent in an all white jury. This clear injustice galvanized the civil rights movement and threw the nation into an uproar. 1955, Rosa Parks and the Bus Boycott: In the December of 1955, Rosa Parks sat right behind the 10 seats reserved for white people. When a white man entered, and the white section was full, he insisted to sit right behind where she was. She quietly refused to give up, and when arrested, she brought a legal complaint. At this time, local civil rights activists initiated a boycott system in cities across the South. Since blacks were 75% of the bus riders, the boycott posted 1957, Little Rock Nine: The supreme court stopped school segregation, but people still were extremely racist in several states, including Arkansas, where the Little Rock Nine incident took place. Nine African Americans were trying to attend Central High School, but were denied permission from the Mayor, who sent the National Guard to prevent the African American students from entering Central High. After a complaint, the United States sent the US army to take care of things and go in and drive out the National Guard, but the Major wouldn't give up, so he cancelled all school attendance, but that was later overridden by the Supreme Court. The African American students were protected by heavily armed US Army Guards. Many of the people who resented and protested against the Little Rock Nine have apologized for their actions when they were young in the Oprah Show. Many of the Little Rock Nine are now extremely successful. By: Daniel Chan, Calvin Yu, Frank Jin 1960, SNCC: On Feb. 1st, 1960, four African Americans went in a bar, but were refused service due to the bartender only serving whites. They were angered, and at there until the bar closed, and the next day they came back with more people. This action took an impact on many black communities, which started to form their own peaceful protests. Many were arrested for trespassing, but that didn't stop them. These actions forced communities to change their segregation policies. Later that year, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was established. In the next few years, many parades were held by this committee, and many violent acts towards the committee were committed, but they stayed strong. 1962, Ole Miss: In 1962 blacks had begun, in small numbers, attending white colleges. However, one college located in Mississippi, named "Ole Miss", admitted a black man whose name was James Meredith. The state officials, however, were enraged that a black man could come to their university, and pledged to keep him out. When he arrived there was a mob of more than 2000 people formed at the campus. Only some 31,000 troops under President Kennedy could stop them. Eventually Meredith studied at the University and graduated, and the governor and other state officials were forced to let the school accept blacks in the school, the governor and the officials became a large symbol of the resistance to stop desegregation. 1963, Birmingham Church Bombed: Even after Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous speech at the Lincoln Memorial, violence against blacks and segregation still occured. In the middle of September, members of the KKK (Ku Klux Klan) placed bombs by the 16th street church in Birmingham, one of the most segregated areas at the time. The bombing killed 4 African American girls. This bombing was after the ordering of integration of the school system. After all of these events, Birmingham had become the leading focus of the civil rights movement by Spring of 1963. 1963, March on Washington: The March on Washington attracted about 250,000 people to attend a peaceful demonstration to promote civil rights for the blacks. The march was initiated by A. Randolph. The people marched, and gathered near the Lincoln Memorial, where Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous "I have a Dream" speech. He spoke of peace and equality between blacks and whites, and that his children could live in a nation not judged by race but by character. The March on Washington was a success. It was a powerful, peaceful, and beyond expectations. It would be considered one of the most prominent moments during the Civil Rights movement. 1964, Civil Rights Act: After many years of relentless fighting for equal rights, Martin Luther King Jr. lead the black community and America to the long awaited dream they had been chasing. In 1964 Congress passed the Public Law 88-352, or better known as the Civil Rights Act. This act forbade discrimination on the basis of race, religion, sex, or national origin. There was a mandated desegregation of public facilities such as restrooms, pools, schools, and buses. This Act was the turning point in the fight for equality, it is the epitome of what Martin Luther King Jr. and so many more had hoped for for so many years. There finally was equality for everyone in the state of law. 1964, Freedom Summer: In an effort to further inhibit equality, the Congress of Racial equality, the Congress of Racial Equality urged students that were both black and white to help build schools for underprivileged black children. There were three male students, two white and one black, that were on their way when they were reported missing. The culprits were white supremacists, which included the towns sheriff, they had murdered the boys and hid their bodies in a nearby dam. the convicted men were given a rather generous punishment, thus proving that although the law may say everyone is equal, racism still exists. 1965, Selma to Montgomery March: On March 7, civil rights activists made the 54-mile march from Selma to Montgomery in response to a fellow activist's murder. His death was the result of unfair state laws that kept African Americans from voting. Their march was met by numerous attacks by state police near the Edmund Pettus Bridge outside Selma. Television networks broadcasted the brutal attacks of "Bloody Sunday" nationwide, throwing the country into a blazing fury. This led to a second March. led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. as well as other religious leaders. There were about 25,000 marchers that were escorted by national guard to Montgomery. 1965, Malcolm X Assassination: When Malcolm was a child, he had a rough childhood to say the least. His father's death was uncertain but it is expected that he died at the hands of the Ku Klux Klan, and his mother was issued into an asylum by the time he was six. He was later arrested for assisting in a robbery. While incarcerated he converted to Islam and became a member of the Nation of Islam, or the Black Muslims. He rejected Martin Luther King's idea of non-confrontation and believed that true freedom would only come from black independence. His philosophy on black power and consciousness was widely accepted. He was killed while preparing to give a speech by three members of NOI where he was shot sixteen times. His death fueled his supporters and helped spread his ideas through his autobiography. 1965, Voting Rights Act: President Johnson made civil rights one of his top priorities, wanting to protect the voting rights of African Americans. This act was made so that the federal government could oversee voter registrations and elections and ban discriminatory literacy tests. By 1968, nearly 60 percent of eligible blacks were registered to vote in MI. This act was one of the most expansive pieces of legislation, and greatly reduced the inequality of blacks and whites in the South. Discriminatory slogans such as "blacks need not apply here", were no longer accepted by the general society. 1966, Rise of Black Power: In the earlier 1966 many blacks were getting frustrated, because they were still not being treated equally- socially or politically. This called for the black people to become independent and support something called "black power", which was the term detailing the civil rights movement. This "black power" was self-defense system for blacks. Although when the groups first were created the general message was one of peace and nonviolence, one group called the Black Panther Party got out of control and became a Marxist group. They encouraged blacks to arm themselves and demand full rights, such as employment, housing, etc. This group clashed with police forces, eventually resulting in the death of a police officer. 1967, Loving v Virginia: Loving v. Virginia was a famous court case that involved an interracial marriage in the state of Virginia. At the time, Virginia prohibited interracial living, so when Mildred and Richard Loving were living in their house, the police burst into their house to tell them that they could not stay together and arrested them. However, the ACLU took on their case and brought it up to the Supreme Court. The Court eventually ruled that having these laws against segregation in Virginia, called miscegenation, were not constitutional and did not deserve to stand. The Chief Justice also said that "we have consistently denied the constitutionality of measures which restricts the citizen's rights". However, some states were still slow to change their constitutions. 1968, Fair Housing Act: The Fair Housing Act was meant to be some sort of continuation to the civil rights act. The act was a basis to rally against the discrimination of rental of housing units. It prohibited discrimination against race, sex, national origin, etc. not only skin color. The bill, when brought up, passed the senate by a very small margin and on the day of the Senate vote, Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in Memphis. Although this Act was passed, over the next few years discrimination of blacks relating to houses only slightly declined; it was not very useful. Violence arose from black efforts to seek housing in white neighborhoods. Eventually, blacks moved and lived in ghettos, plagued by low employment rates, high crime, and other social illnesses. 1968, Dr.King Assassination: Dr. Martin Luther King was on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in downtown Memphis when he was shot by a .30 caliber sniper. the bullet traveled from his right cheek down to his left shoulder blade. He was announced officially dead at 7:05pm. The whole nation was in shock and rage at the sight of this tragedy, everyone was frantick to figure out who had pulled the trigger. The convicted shooter was James Earl Ray, he had shot Dr. King from a nearby rooming house where he was staying. The nation took to the streets in protest of his death. The death of Dr. King only fueled the passion in the hearts of all those that fought for civil rights. His beliefs and philosophy became even more popular after his death. 1972, Sherry Chrisholm runs for President: Shirley Chisholm was the first woman elected to Congress, as well as the first black woman to be on the ballot for presidential candidacy. She received more than 150 votes from the Democratic Party, but all the while, saying that she never expected to win the election. However, during this time, she became a national symbol of both the first major party African American candidate and the first female candidate for president. She also claimed that she "faced more discrimination for being a woman than being black", but when she ran for president she had to face both types of discrimination. 1978, Affirmative Action: The term "affirmative action" was coined in the 1960's and was used to refer about policies and initiatives aimed at past discrimination. President Kennedy wanted to, in a way, "redress" discrimination that had persisted before. However, it was developed and enforced for the first time by President Johnson. He wanted equality as a fact and as a result. Allan Bakke, a white man, applied to UC Davis without success twice. After, he sued the school claiming that minorities such as blacks had lower test scores and still got in. The verdict was that strict racial quotas was unconstitutional and that Bakke should be admitted, but they could still use race as criterion. This decision enraged many whites, and several U.S. states prohibited racially based affirmative action. 1984, Jesse Jackson: Jesse Jackson was a young man when he joined Martin Luther King Jr. He was by his side when King was killed. He created a voter registration drive that led to the election of Harold Washington as the first black mayor. The next year, Jackson represented the Democrats to run for president, and was supported by a large amount of black voters, and placed 3rd in the primaries. Throughout his career, he inspired black voters to have an important role in his party. On his behalf, he has received admiration for his efforts for the black community, and his son, Jesse L. Jackson Jr, won a seat in the House of Representatives in 1995. 1995, Million Man March: The Million Man March was the largest demonstration ever in Washington, DC. Minister Farrakhan was the man behind the congregation, he asked one million black men to take charge of their own fate. This march was not in anger or even to make the government to make a change, it was an statement to the world that African Americans can hold their own. It was a symbol of self reliance and pride in their ethnicity. Those that participated were encouraged to register to vote, join an organization, and or adopt a black child. After the march, there was reportedly 1.7 million black males were adopted. This march inspired many after as well, in the following years there have been a million woman, youth, and family march. 1992, Rodney King: Rodney King was drunk driving and on probation for robbery when he was attempted to get pulled over by the police. The Police Department were on the scene and he resisted arrest, so they tasered and beat him. This beating angered many blacks in the city, who believed that this was because of the racial abuse and profiling because of the police. They demanded that the police officers be tried and fired for their "crime" of excessive force. However, when the court case was brought up before the court, the court ruled that there was not enough evidence to convict the officers. WIthin hours of the verdict, riots erupted all over Los Angeles, leaving more than 50 dead and 2000 injured. 2009, Obama Becomes President: Obama was inaugurated as the 44th president on January 20, 2009. He is the first African American to hold office. His father came from Kenya, and his mother from Kansas. He studied at Harvard Law School and practicing law in Chicago, and in 1996 was in the Illinois State Senate. He attracted national attention with the call for nation unity and cooperation across party lines. He had a tough Democratic primary battle with Hillary Clinton, and defeated Senator John McCain of Arizona as well in the general election. His speech, supported by the motto "Yes We Can" inspired voters to vote for him, especially the African Americans excited at the hope of a black president. He has continued to change our country, in promise of reducing debt, and making a better America. 2001, Colin Powell: Colin Powell was risen in a military family and later became a leading Army General. He fought in the Vietnam war and the Persian Gulf War as the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was the first African American to hold that position, he later retired from the military in 1993. It was then that he was encouraged to run for president. In the end he decided not to and instead was appointed Secretary of the State by George W. Bush. He was also the first to hold this title as well. He later supported the Barack Obama campaign in 2008. Birthday, Life Story - Biography.com ." Famous Biographies & TV Shows - Biography.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/colin-powell-9445708>. (tags: none | edit tags)
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" Jesse Jackson Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story - Biography.com ." Famous Biographies & TV Shows - Biography.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/jesse-jackson-9351181>. (tags: none | edit tags)
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1963, having learned what Alabama's white constituents wanted, he famously said, "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever. "American Experience.Eyes on the Prize.The Story of the Movement | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/10_march.html>. (tags: none | edit tags)
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"An Historical Perspective." Millions More Movement: 10th Anniversary Commemoration of the Million Man March. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://www.millionsmoremovement.com/history.htm>. (tags: none | edit tags)
Brunner, Borgna. "Affirmative Action History & Timeline (Civil Rights Act, Supreme Court Cases, etc) — Infoplease.com." Infoplease — Free Online Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, and More — Infoplease.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://www.infoplease.com/spot/affirmative1.html>. (tags: none | edit tags)
"Dred Scott case." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2933.html>. (tags: none | edit tags)
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Green, Lieutenant, Major Russell, and quickly ended the contest. The insurgents. "John Brown's Raid, 1859." EyeWitness to History - history through the eyes of those who lived it. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/johnbrown.htm>. (tags: none | edit tags)
HULSE, CARL. "Obama Is Sworn In as the 44th President - NYTimes.com." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/21/us/politics/20web-inaug2.html?pagewanted=all>. (tags: none | edit tags)
Lewis, Chris H., and Ph.D.. "The Civil Rights Movement and the Rise of the Black Power Movement." University of Colorado Boulder. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://www.colorado.edu/AmStudies/lewis/2010/power.htm>. (tags: none | edit tags)
"Malcolm X: a brief summary | History in an HourHistory in an Hour." History In An Hour: History for busy people: history ebooks to read in an hourHistory in an Hour | History for busy people. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://www.historyinanhour.com/2011/02/21/malcolm-x-a-brief-summary/>. (tags: none | edit tags)
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Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr." 20th Century History. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2012. <http://history1900s.about.com/cs/martinlutherking/a/mlkassass.htm>. (tags: none | edit tags)
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