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Chapter 6: The Americas

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Joseph Floyd

on 4 October 2017

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Transcript of Chapter 6: The Americas

Settling of Americas
Olmecs
Emerged in lowland swamps of Gulf of Mexico after 1500 BCE
"People of the land of rubber"
San Lorenzo, La Venta main centers, giant stone heads, ceremonial ball game
Trade extended to highlands, Pacific Coast
Cacao, jaguar pelts, rubber traded for maize (corn) and jade
Olmec civilization collapses around 4th century BCE
Archaeologists debate whether it was a "mother culture" of Mesoamerica
First Civilizations in South America
From 3500 BCE, Norte Chico culture on coast of Peru
60-foot pyramids at Caral, beans, squash, tomatoes, cotton for fish-nets
Chavín de Huantar in Andean highlands (1250-750 BCE) stone temples, underground canals
Potatoes, quinoa, maize on terraced fields
Gold, copper-work, solar observatory
Chavín de Huantar
Caral
Zapotecs
Zapotec civilization in Valley of Oaxaca from 400 BCE-600 CE
Monte Albán built atop 1,200 ft. mountain
Home to elite of priests, nobles
Undeciphered system of writing
Moche
After collapse of Chavín, Moche developed in northern Peru
15 acres, two 100 ft. adobe pyramids, irrigation canals, elaborate ceramics, textiles, gold-work
Collapsed ca.700 CE due to El Niño floods and droughts
Teotihuacán
First major city in Mesoamerica was Teotihuacán, in Valley of Mexico
Height from 100-450 CE, 200-250,000 inhabitants
Pyramids of Sun, Moon, trade with Zapotec, Mayans, Gulf coast, source of obsidian (volcanic glass used in tools, weapons)
Teotihuacán-style buildings, ceramics at many Mayan sites
Wari and Tiwanaku
Wari emerged in Andes foothills ca. 500, expanded into Moche valley, collapsed in 1100s
Tiwanaku on Lake Titicaca (Bolivia) religious center with monumental architecture
Potatoes, quinoa grown on flood-raised fields
Protected crops from frosts, aquatic plants as fertilizer, required substantial labor to maintain
Similarities in art, relationship is unknown
Nazca Lines
Chimú
Chimú emerged 1100, capital at Chan Chan, on Moche River
Palaces built of adobe (sun-dried brick), home to 30,000 people
Elaborate irrigation canals
By 1400s, canals badly damaged by earthquakes, floods
In 1470 conquered by a new empire, the Inka
Tawantinsuyu (Inca Empire)
Inca were small community in valley of Cusco
Under Pachakuti Inka, campaign of conquest and expansion in 1440s
Four provinces (suyus) ruled by governor related to Inca royal family
Built terraces, aqueducts, over 24,800 miles of roads
Trained runners carried messages
Marriage strictly regulated, some women "chosen virgins" in temples
Palaces of stones without mortar, resistant to earthquakes
System of knotted strings called quipus
Maya
Mayan civilization in Guatemala, Yucatan, southern Mexico
Classical period from 200-900 CE
Large number of city-states linked by trade networks
Cacao (chocolate) as currency
Writing system, numbers w/ zero, astronomy, calender
Canals, raised fields to grow corn, beans in swampy jungles
Over-cultivation, warfare led to collapse
Post-Classical Mesoamerica
After fall of Teotihuacán ca.715, city-states ruled by warrior-elite
Toltecs found Tula, ca.800, Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, pillars of warriors, destroyed ca.1150 by Chichimec nomads invading Valley of Mexico.
Mixtec city-states rule Oaxaca, unite under Eight Deer Jaguar Claw (1063-1115)
New centers of Mayan civilization in Yucatán Peninsula
Chichén Itzá (900-1200), ruled by a Toltec dynasty (?), Pyramid of Kukulkan (El Castillo)
Mexica (Aztecs)
Triple Alliance dominated by Tenochtitlan formed 1428, unifies Valley of Mexico
Moctezuma I (1440-1469) conquers Mixtec of Oaxaca, Gulf coast, tribute in chocolate, cotton, feathers
Axayacatl (1469-81) consolidates conquests
Ritual Flower Wars to gain sacrificial captives
Sacrifices to god Huitzilpochtli to give the sun the strength to rise
Mound Builders
In eastern North America, Mound Builders built earthen mounds for religious, ceremonial, burial purposes, as elite residences
Adena (1000-200 BCE) of Ohio River valley, Hopewell (200 BCE-500 CE). Mississippian (800-1500).
Adena and Hopewll built burial, effigy mounds, mixed hunting, gathering, small-scale farming
Mississippian culture emerged with large scale maize (corn) agriculture, large flat-topped temple mounds, centralized chiefdoms.
Cahokia, near present-day St. Louis, over 40,000 people, larger than London
Tenochtitlan by Dr. Atl
Home to over 250,000 people by 1520, site of modern day Mexico City
Oasis-America
In first millennium CE, Hohokam in Gila Valley (Arizona) acquire corn, beans, squash, cotton, irrigation, urban centers after 1050 CE
Ancestral Pueblo peoples develop irrigation using canyons, urban centers at Chaco Canyon, Mesa Verde
Turquoise traded for tropical bird feathers, copper bells from Mesoamerica
Casas Grandes in Chihuahua, Mexico on Turquoise Trail, aligned with Chaco Canyon
Collapse a result of El Niño floods and droughts, descendents settle further south
Caral
Arawaks
Arawaks from Venezuela settle islands of Caribbean after 650 CE
Hunted, fished, grew maize, manioc
Social classes, hereditary chiefdoms, ball courts
Taíno settle Hispaniola, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica
Caribs settle Lesser Antilles
Guanahatabey foragers in western Cuba
Origins of the Aztecs
Last wave of Chichimec nomads to enter Valley of Mexico were Mexica (Aztecs)
Fought in wars between rival city-states
In 1325 granted an island on the shores of Lake Texcoco
Amazonia
Skepticism that advanced societies could exist due to thin soil, challenged by archaeological findings
Marajó culture on island at mouth of Amazon from 400-1200 CE
Earthen mounds, sophisticated pottery, population over 100,0000
Subsistence based on intensive fishing, seed crops, tree fruits (açaí)
Northern South America
Chibchan-speaking peoples form tribal confederacies
Muisca of East Andes (Bogotá, Colombia) famous for gold-work
Tairona in Caribbean Colombia, 'Ciudad Perdida' (Lost City) in Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, founded 800 CE, abandoned, discovered in 1975
Chinampas, 'floating gardens,' artificial islands used to grow crops on the lakes of the Valley of Mexico
Head-Smashed-In-Buffalo-Jump, Alberta, Canada, used for 5,000 years
Mound Builder sites
Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde, Colorado
Ancient Pueblos built cliff dwellings along canyon walls, which collected moisture for farming
Great Temple, Tenochtitlan
Aztec Empire
Eight-Deer Jaguar Claw Mixted codice
Solar Equinox, Temple of Kulkan (Quetzalcoatl), Chichén Itzá
Bonampak Mural
Mayan city-states
Cuicuilco, first urban center in the Valley of Mexico (700 BCE-150 CE), destroyed in a volcano
Cahokia, ca. 1300
Chapter 6: The Americas
Inti Raymi (Sun Festival), Cusco
Muisca Gold Raft, Museum of Gold, Bogota, Colombia
Eskimos and Dené
Zemi figures, Taíno idols, Dominican Republic
Lucayan Indian ca. 1492, National Museum of the Bahamas
Atanarjuat (The Fast Runner) (2001)
Aztec Warrior Jaguar Dance
El Mirador, 600-BCE-100 CE Pre-Classic city-state
Tikal, height 200-900 CE, dominated Petén Basin
Quiriguá Stela
On the Motagua Jade Route
Hierogylphic stairway, macaw god Copán, Honduras, 400-800 CE
Palenque, 226 BCE-800 CE
Athens of the Mayan World
Pyramid of the Magician, Uxmal dominated Yucatán from 850-950 CE
Popol Vuh (Book of Council)
Western North America
Cherokee War Dance
People lived in the Americas at least 15,000 years ago
Most scholars estimate
Homo sapiens sapiens
crossed from Asia between 10-15,000 years ago
Recent discoveries have suggested humans arrived earlier
Hunters and gatherers living in small nomadic bands
Maize (corn) grown as early as 5000 BCE in central Mexico
Clovis point, New Mexico
Teosinte, wild ancestor of maize
Inca stone walls in Cusco
Harvesting potatoes
Machu Picchu, built by Inka Pachakuti (1438-72)
Inca Roads and Bridges
"Eskimo" means "eater of raw meat"
Inuit of Arctic Canada, Greenland, Inupiat of Alaska, Yupik of Siberia
Originate in Alaska, migrate to Canada, Greenland after 1000
New technologies, kayak, harpoon, dog-sledge
Athabaskan peoples (Dené) originate in interior of Alaska, Northwest Canada
Migrate to Pacific coast (Tlingit), Southwest (Navajo, Apache)
Western Mexico
Toltec merchants travel west, north, acquire turquoise, peyote, slaves
La Quemada develops between 300-1200, links with Teotihuacan, controlled regional trade
Fortified for defense against attacks
Tarascan empire in Michoacán after 1350, enemies of Aztecs
Distinct from other Mesoamerican societies
Copper tools, weapons, circular pyramids called yácatas
La Quemada, Zacatecas
Tzintuntzan, Tarascan capital
Purépecha fishermen, Lake Pátzcuaro, Michoacán
Atlantic Forest of South America
Tupí-Guarani common language family, small tribal bands
Shifting agriculture, manioc (cassava), açaí, pineapples
Women farmed, men warriors, hunters
Tupí man and woman, 1641
Indians of southern South America primarily hunters
Comechingón in central Argentina farmed, kept llamas
Re-domesticate feral (wild) horses
Mapuche expand into Patagonia, raid Spanish settlements
Tupinikin chief, Brasilia
Wealthy foraging societies of California, Pacific Northwest relied on fishing, whaling, gathering shellfish, wild plants
Nomadic desert cultures of Great Basin
Plains Indians hunt buffalo on foot, by stampeding off cliffs
Tlingit, Alaska
Inuit, Nunavut, Canada and Greenland
Civilizations of the Andes
Mesoamerica (Middle America)
The Descent of Kukulkan
Atalantes of Tula
Cave Paintings, Sierra San Francisco de Baja California 1000 BCE-1300 CE
Chaco Canyon
Casas Grandes
Adios Pueblo de Ayacucho, Peruvian huayno
Stone depicting dismembered Coyolxauhqui, leader of the star gods, found at base of Great Temple
Founding of Tenochtitlan March 13, 1325
Navajo sheepherder in Monument Valley
Over 300,000 Navajo (Diné), mostly in Arizona, New Mexico, largest American Indian tribe in the U.S.
Gate of the Sun, Tiwanaku
Wari pottery
Huaca del Sol pyramid
Moche pottery
Pyramid of the Sun
Temple of Quetzalcoatl
Great Goddess of Teotihuacan
Statue of Agüeybaná II 'The Brave,' Ponce, Puerto Rico
Reconstructed Taíno village, Cuba
Arawak woman, Dutch Guiana (Suriname), South America
Mayan languages are spoken by an estimated 6 million Maya peoples, mainly in Guatemala, southern Mexico and Belize
Quechua woman and child, Peru
Over 10 million people speak Quechua, the language of the Inca
Statue of Comechingón weaver, Córdoba, Argentina
Mapuche raid, 19th century
Ciudad Perdida
Gold Raft, Muisca
Bering Land Bridge
Chan Chan, northern Peru
Chimú pottery
Central America
Migrations from Mesoamerica to Pacific coast (Nahuat of El Salvador), Chibchan-speakers from Honduras to Colombia
Grew maize, cacao, manioc, chiefdoms after 300 CE, shamans
Pottery, cotton textiles, jade, goldwork
Kuna mola, Panama
Jade sculpture, Costa Rica
Joya de Ceren, El Salvador
"Pompeii of the Americas," destroyed by a volcanic eruption ca. 600 CE
Pyramid of Cholula, near Puebla, Mexico
Largest pyramid ever built, 400x400 meters (1300 ft.x1300ft.)
Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico, founded ca.1200, oldest continuously inhabited town in the U.S.
El Castillo, Tulum, 1200-1500s
La Venta Offering, 800-1000 BCE
Olmec influenced sculpture, Guerrero, Pacific coast of Mexico
Tomb of Pakal the Great (615-684)
Temple of Murals, Bonampak, 790
Statue of chief with gold jewelry, Costa Rica
Museum of Gold, Costa Rica
Inca Road System
Moche goldwork and pottery
Ruins of Guayabo, Costa Rica, height 800-1400 CE
Aqueducts channeled rainwater from the slopes of Turrialba volcano
Marajó pottery
Natives of Tierra del Fuego world's southernmost people
"Canoe nomads," men hunted sea-lions, women gathered shellfish
Royal llama of the Inca
Silver figurine, Lake Titicaca
A rare example of original Inca metalwork
Gold sheet mask of Inca sun god Inti, Quito, Ecuador
"Colossal heads" La Venta
Were-jaguar mask, jade
Olmec heartland
Monte Alban pyramids
Corn god
Aztec codices
Chumash village, Southern California
Hunting bison
Totem Pole and Council House, Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada
Native peoples of the Caribbean
Antonio Saldaña, last '"king" of Talamanca (Costa Rica) 1910
Chavin map
Nazca culture in south of Peru from 200 BCE-500 CE
Created geoglyphs (land pictures)
Chimú gold-work
Ceremonial knife (Tumi)
Pair of ear-flares
Ceremonial vase
Northern Woodlands
Eastern Algonquians on Atlantic coast from North Carolina to Canada
Small, mobile villages, seasonal economy hunting, gathering, fishing, some maize agriculture
Agricultural Iroquois of lower Great Lakes, St. Lawrence River, matrileneal (through mother) clans, five nation confederacy
Palafitos (Stilt-homes), Venezuela
"Abuela" Christina Calderón, last living speaker of Yahgan language
Cusco, capital of Tawantinsuyu
Planned as an effigy in the shape of a puma
El Teatro del Más Allá (Threater of the Beyond-Chavin de Huantar)
Serpent Mound
300-200 BCE, Adena culture
Emerald Mound
c. 1300 CE
French depiction of Natchez chief 'Great Sun' 1600
Moundville, Alabama second-largest Mississippian site, Mound A, chief on litter
Mound A Etowah, Georgia
Fish trap on Etowah river
Statue of "Eagle Warrior" chief
Great Temple Mound, Ocmulgee, 950-1150
Rock Eagle effigy mound, ca. 100 CE
Monk's Mound, Cahokia, 900-1200 CE
Watercolors of Algonquian Indians, 1585
Algonquian village, North Carolina
Luna de Xelajú, Marimba, Guatemala
Hundreds of geoglyphs have been discovered on deforested land in the Amazon rainforest
Monte Verde, southern Chile predates Clovis culture by 1000 years
Theory of coastal migration before Bering Land bridge
Huichol bead-work, Jalisco
El Tajin flourished on Gulf coast from 600-1200 CE
Sophisticated pyramids, 17 ballcourts
Pyramid of the Niches
Ball Court
El Tajin and Veracruz culture
Kogi Indians
Hunting guanacos with bola, Patagonia
"We are not myths of the past, ruins in jungles or zoos We are people and we want to be respected, not victims of intolerance and racism." Nobel Peace Prize winner Rigoberta Menchu Tum
During the time of the Incas certain women, who were called
accla
or "the chosen," were destined for lifelong virginity. Mostly they were confined in houses and they belonged to one of two main categories, namely sacred virgins and common virgins.
The so-called "virgins with red cheeks" entered upon their duties at the age of twenty and were dedicated to the service of the Sun, the Moon and the Day-Star. In their whole life they were never allowed to speak to a man.
The virgins of the Inca's own shrine of Huanacuri were know for their beauty as well as their chastity. The other principal shrines had similar girls in attendance. At the less important shrines there were the older virgins who occupied themselves with spinning and weaving silk-like clothes worn by their idols. There was a still lower class of virgins, over forty years of age and no longer very beautiful, who performed unimportant religious duties and worked in the fields or as ordinary seamstresses.
Virgins of the Sun
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