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Middle school Genetics

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by

Scott Carpenter

on 18 December 2012

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Transcript of Middle school Genetics

Nucleus Chromosome is a structure in the nucleus made up of DNA and Protien DNA DNA a Gene is the name given to a segment of the DNA that carries different traits The nucleus is a cell structure that contains hereditary information, or DNA, and controls cellular growth and reproduction. DNA is the chemical that genes and chromosomes are made of DNA is comprised of 2 Backbones and rungs that are base-pairs comprised of 4 bases T C G A Gene Genes carry genetic traits that give us our uniqueness

Heredity is the term used to define the passing of traits from parents to offspring. Base pairs
match up
because
they are
complementary Traits Dominant
traits will
always win out
over a recessive trait Recessive traits
reappear in the second generation after disappearing in the first generation (First discovered by Mendel) Punnett Square Dominant
trait Recessive
trait There are X and Y sex chromosomes
Males have one X and one Y,
Females have 2 X chromosomes Because Men only have the one X
chromosome, they are more prone
to colorblindness Father's 23 sex chromosomes
carrying traits Mother's 23 sex chromosomes carrying traits Off-spring's 46 chromosomes now with certain traits from both parents Genetics is the study of Heredity
All people have 46 chromosomes
23 pairs of chromosomes A Pedigree traces family traits through many years. Pairing of
bases allow
cells to replicate a string of
Nucleotides that has instructions for a certain trait is a gene DNA replication Step 1
a strand of
DNA splits two forms of a gene,
one from each parent,
are called alleles A trait is different forms of a characteristic Some genetic disorder are due to mutation, not all mutations are fatal. Step 2
nucleotides must
be added in the
correct order to create
complementary
strands Step 3
the new strands
must be sealed up. Mutations are changes in number, type, or order of bases on a piece of DNA Types of mutation
Substitution
Insertion
Deletion
3 possible consequences
of mutation
Improved trait
No change
Harmful trait
Full transcript