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Conrad Young

on 12 April 2016

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Lipids have many subcategories:
The main ones you need to worry about are the triglycerides: fats and oils.
Carbohydrates are, as suggested by the name, hydrates of carbon.

They consist of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms.

The formula for a carbohydrate can be expressed as C_m(H_2 O)_n, where, most commonly, m and n are the same.

Carbohydrates include simple sugars: monosaccharides and disaccharides, complex sugars: polysaccharides.
Proteins are polymers of amino acids.

Proteins are essential to human life because they carry out orders from the genes in cells.

Proteins can be converted to energy by the liver when there is a lack of carbohydrate or fat
Food Science
The Event
This event consists of taking a written test and performing some amount of laboratory work along the way, often times in stations. The rules require a viscosity station or section plus at least seven other stations relating to topics listed in the rules
Macromolecules are very large molecules. There are conventionally four different biopolymers:
-Nucleic acids
The last does not apply to Food Science; therefore, we only need to pay attention to the first three. In each of these categories of macromolecules, some subcategories exist.
Fats are most commonly found as triglycerides.

Triglycerides are made up of a glycerol "backbone" with three fatty acids attached.

Fatty acids are long chains of carbon molecules with an ester group on the end.

Fats are most commonly found as triglycerides.

Triglycerides are made up of a glycerol "backbone" with three fatty acids attached.

Fatty acids are long chains of carbon molecules with an ester group on the end.
Fatty Acids
The fatty acids may be:

Triglycerides can use any combination of these different fatty acids.
Saturated Fat
Saturated fatty acids are one long chain of carbon atoms meaning no double bonds and no fancy stuff.

Saturated fats are generally
bad for you
since they clog your arteries, increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke.

Since the carbon atoms in a saturated fatty acid are packed closely together, saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature.

Saturated fats are generally found in animals.
Unsaturated Fat
Unsaturated fatty acids are also a long chain of carbon atoms, this time with one or more double bonds.

Unsaturated fatty acids with one double bond are
, and those with two or more double bonds are

Unsaturated fats are generally
better for you

when not overeaten
because they may help lower blood cholesterol level.

Since double bonds exist, these fatty acids are much more wobbly and, therefore, are usually liquid at room temperature.

Unsaturated fats are generally found in plants such as nuts and seeds. They are also found in fish as omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids.
Omega-3 essential fatty acids are found in fish and plants.

The name means there exists a double bond three carbon atoms from the non-ester end of the chain.

These fatty acids are "essential" because your body cannot produce them on its own, and they are vital for normal metabolism.
Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids
Trans Fat
Trans fats are not found in nature, although recent studies suggest that there may be small amounts.

Trans fats are unsaturated fatty acids heated up then made so "dizzy" that it changes from cis to trans configuration.

Trans fats are
unhealthy for you
since they lower high-density lipoproteins (HDLs or "good" cholesterol) and raise low-density lipoproteins (LDLs or "bad" cholesterol).
Esters are found on the end of all fatty acids.

Esters are a group of organic molecules that contain -C=O-O- as part of the molecule.

More specifically, esters are only one part of the molecules in this group, but any molecule that contains an ester is classified as an "ester group".

Esters are derived from carboxylic acids. When a carboxylic acid reacts with alcohol, an ester will form. For example, acetic acid will react with ethanol to make ethyl acetate.

Common esters include ethyl acetate and ethyl ethanoate.
The one sterol you'll want to know about is cholesterol.
Cholesterol, like all sterols, come in this form:

Cholesterol comes in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs or "good" cholesterol) and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs or "bad" cholesterol.)

HDLs are made by your liver, while LDLs are generally consumed.

Some types of foods, such as trans fats, are thought to raise LDL levels and lower HDL ones.

If you have too much LDL, your arteries will clog and, as a result, you will get a heart attack. This is cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in America.
Simple Sugars
Simple sugars consist of single sugar units (monosaccharides) and disaccharides (which are made up of two monosaccharides).

The names of sugars often end in the suffix -ose.

Simple sugars are small, easy to break down, and, therefore, give you energy quite soon after you consume simple sugars.

However, they run out quickly, leaving you tired. Think about crashing after a sugar high.

The "Sugars" on food labels consist of mono- and di-saccharides. That's why you see sugar in milk; that's lactose, not added by the manufacturer.
Simple Sugars
Common monosaccharides include:

-Glucose (also dextrose)
-Fructose (also levulose)

Common disaccharides include:

-Sucrose (glucose+fructose)
-Lactose (glucose+galactose)
-Maltose (only found as a byproduct of hydrolysis of starch; glucose+glucose)
Complex Sugars
Complex sugars are mainly polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are chains of many monosaccharides, most commonly glucose.

Polysaccharides are divided into two main groups: -Storage polysaccharides
-Structure polysaccharides
Storage Polysaccharides
Storage polysaccharides are our main source of energy.

There are two main storage polysaccharides:

Glycogen is the storage polysaccharide found in animals.

Structure Polysaccharides
Structure polysaccharides are polysaccharides meant to give structure.

Two common structure polysaccharides are celluose and chitin.

Celluose is better known as (dietary) fiber. It is insoluble.

What is insolubility? indigestible by our bodies, so it cleans out our insides and comes out as feces.
Protein denaturation is the undoing of natural structure by chemical or physical means.

Denaturation doesn’t change the composition of the protein, only the structure. Protein denaturation can happen because of heat (140-180 degrees Fahrenheit/ 60-80 degrees Celsius), high acidity, air bubbles, or any combination of the three.

Since denaturation changes the folds of the proteins, there are more open bonds, so they form new bonds.

This creates a thickness or density. Coagulation is the process when these new bonds are formed.
Protein Denaturation and Coagulation
Enzymes are a type of special proteins that catalyze chemical reactions.

The names of enzymes often end in the suffix -ase.
Examples are maltase (breaks down maltose):
-Amylase (breaks down amylose and amylopectin)
-Lactase (breaks down lactose)

Some enzymes cause disease due to the fact that some people do not contain them or possess distorted, non-functional forms.

The most common disease is phenylketonuria (PKU), which is a lack of functional phenylalanine hydroxylase, an enzyme.

When functional, phenylalanine hydroxylase is supposed to break down phenylalanine, an amino acid found in the artificial sugar aspartame.
Amino Acid
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

Amino acids consist of 10-40 atoms each, mainly carbon, hydrogen, sometimes sulfur, and at least one nitrogen in the amino group, -NH2.

Proteins are formed by linking the amine nitrogen with a carbon atom on another amino acid, forming a peptide bond.
(Non)Essential Amino Acids
You need all of the amino acids to live.

There are 9 essential amino acids and 11 non-essential ones. Your body does not make the essential ones, therefore you need to eat them. The other 12 your body makes itself, therefore it is not essential to eat them.

For a person with a normal diet, all 9 essential amino acids are normally found in most meats.

This poses a problem for vegetarians, who cannot eat proteins with all the essential amino acids. So they must eat complementary proteins, or two different food ingredients, when, eaten together, make complete protein sets that contain all the proteins that you need to eat.
Benedicts Test
Benedict's solution is also known as Fehling's solution.

It tests for reducing sugars, or a sugar with a free aldehyde.

The reaction between a reducing sugar and Benedict's is between the reducing sugar's aldehyde and the copper sulfate in Benedict's.

Benedict's Test
To use Benedict's:

Put a small sample of the food into a test tube.
Liquefy the food by adding enough water to make it a liquid, if the food is not already a liquid.
Add 5-10 drops of Benedict's Solution.
Carefully heat the test tubes in a hot water bath at 40-50 degrees Celsius for five minutes.

To deduce the results:
The liquid will turn
, or
brick red
depending on the amount of sugar present. Green is the least sugar, yellow is more, and red is the most.

Note that Benedict's will only work with reducing sugars.
Reducing sugars are sugars with free aldehydes. (An aldehyde group is of the form R-CH=O where R is something organic.)
Here's a rule of thumb: all monosaccharides are reducing sugars but not all reducing sugars are monosaccharides. Lactose, for example, is reducing; however, sucrose is not. Make sure you know your reducing sugars, because trick questions often arise on tests on this subject.

Remember that Benedict's needs heating to work when answering test questions about it!
Biuret's Test
Biuret's Reagent is for detecting the presence of proteins. The active agent in Biuret's is also copper sulfate. The reaction is due to the formation of complex between the cupric ions in copper sulfate and the lone pair of electrons present on the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of peptide bonds of proteins.

To use Biuret's:

Put a small sample of the food into a test tube.
Liquefy the food by adding enough water to make it a liquid, if the food is not already a liquid.
Add 2-5 drops of Biuret's Solution.
Swirl gently to mix.
Let sit for five minutes.

To deduce the results:
Biuret's will turn a
in the presence of proteins.
Iodine Test
Iodine solution, also Lugol's Iodine, is used to detect starch. It is a mix of the element iodine and potassium iodide. The reaction is the result of formation of polyiodide chains from the reactive starch and iodine.

To use Iodine:

Put a small sample of the food into a test tube.
Liquefy the food by adding enough water to make it a liquid, if the food is not already a liquid.
Add 2-5 drops of Iodine.
Swirl gently to mix.

To deduce results:
The solution will turn dark blue, almost black, in the presence of starch.

Note that amylose (straight chain form of starch) will stain less than amylopectin (branched form of starch).
Brown Bag
The brown bag is the easiest and least formal test. It tests for lipids (fats).

To perform this test, spread, rub, or pour some of the food on a brown bag. Wipe away the excess, and hold the bag to the light. Foods containing more lipids will stain the bag more transparently than ones that have less lipids.

This test can also be done with plain paper, though the paper has to dry before it can be analyzed.
You may have to find the density of certain baked foods made from ingredients on the Approved List of Ingredients such as bread.

To do this, you will have to first cut it into a uniform cuboid (a 3-D rectangle). Next, use a ruler to measure the height, length, and width of the object.

Record these measurements. Now, weigh the object. The event supervisor must provide a scale.

Use the density formula to find the density of the food. Make sure to give your answer in the units wanted.

The density formula is density= weight/height*length*width
Standard Curve
The standard curve is a graph used to help determine the viscosity of an unknown liquid. Make sure your standard curve matches your viscometer!

(Ex. If you have used 2 different viscometers before, make sure you bring the right curve with the right viscometer to the competition.)

The event supervisor may require you to turn in a copy of your standard curve, so make sure you have another copy!
Baking Powder
Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent, a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate and a weak acid, and is used for increasing the volume and lightening the texture of baked goods.
Amount Per 1 tsp
Calories 2 %Daily Value*
Total Fat 0 g
Saturated fat 0 g
Polyunsaturated fat 0 g
Monounsaturated fat 0 g
Cholesterol 0 mg
Sodium 488 mg 20%
Potassium 1 mg
Total Carbohydrate 1.3 g
Dietary fiber 0 g
Sugar 0 g
Protein 0 g
Baking Soda
Sodium bicarbonate is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO₃. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda.
Amount Per 1 tsp
Calories 0 %Daily Value*
Total Fat 0 g
Saturated fat 0 g
Polyunsaturated fat 0 g
Monounsaturated fat 0 g
Cholesterol 0 mg
Sodium 1,259 mg 52%
Total Carbohydrate 0 g
Dietary fiber 0 g
Sugar 0 g
Protein 0 g
Baking powder raises foods usually replacing
yeast and produces
carbon dioxide.
Different mixes:
With water- bubbles up at top
With lemon juice- fizzes up
With vinegarj- fizzes up
Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn grain. The starch is obtained from the endosperm of the corn kernel.
Amount Per 1 cup
Calories 488 % Daily Value*
Total Fat 0.1 g
Saturated fat 0 g
Polyunsaturated fat 0 g
Monounsaturated fat 0 g
Cholesterol 0 mg
Sodium 12 mg
Potassium 4 mg
Total Carbohydrate 117 g 39%
Dietary fiber 1.2 g 4%
Sugar 0 g
Protein 0.3 g
A vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when the organism cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet
Vitamin A

-Vitamin B1

-Vitamin B2

-Vitamin B3

-Vitamin B5

-Vitamin B6

-Vitamin B7

-Vitamin B9

-Vitamin B12

-Vitamin C

-Vitamin D

-Vitamin E

-Vitamin K
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds, that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids, and beta-carotene.

Vitamin A has multiple functions:
-It is important for growth and development
-For the maintenance of the immune system
-Good vision
Vitamin A
Chemical Name(s): Solubility: Density:



Vitamin C
Chemical Name(s): Solubility: Density:

-Absorbic Acid Water 1.954

Vitamin D
Chemical Name(s): Solubility: Density:

-Cholecalciferol Fat .96

Vitamin E
Chemical Name(s): Solubility: Density:

-Alpha-Tocopherol Fat .931

Gamma-Tocopherol Fat .933
Vitamin K
Chemical Name(s): Solubility: Density:

-Phylloquinone Fat .964

Vitamin C
Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid, or simply ascorbate (the anion of ascorbic acid), is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species.

Vitamin C refers to a number of vitamers that have vitamin C activity in animals, including ascorbic acid and its salts, and some oxidized forms of the molecule like dehydroascorbic acid.

It helps the body form and maintain connective tissue, including bones, blood vessels, and skin.
Vitamin D
Vitamin D refers to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc.

In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D₃ and vitamin D₂.

Your body must have vitamin D to absorb calcium and promote bone growth.

Too little vitamin D results in soft bones in children (rickets) and fragile, misshapen bones in adults (osteomalacia).
Vitamin E
Vitamin E refers to a group of compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin found in many foods, fats, and oils. It is also an antioxidant, a substance that may help prevent damage to the body's cells. Antioxidants may provide protection against serious diseases including heart disease and cancer.
Vitamin K
Vitamin K refers to a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins the human body needs for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are required for blood coagulation, and also certain proteins that the body uses to control binding of calcium in bone and other tissues.

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is most well known for the important role it plays in blood clotting.

However, vitamin K is also absolutely essential to building strong bones, preventing heart disease, and crucial part ofother bodily processes.
Calories/ Calorie Count
A calorie is the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1 °C or he energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water through 1 °C, equal to one thousand small calories and often used to measure the energy value of foods.

Calorie Count

-Fat = 9 calories per gram

-Carbohydrate = 4 calories per gram

-Protein = 4 calories per gram

-Alcohol = 7 calories per gram
Example Problem
Answer these qustion without knowing the amount of calories or amount of calories from fat:

1. How many calories from
carbohydrates are there?

2. How many calories from fat are there?

3. How many calories from protein are there?

4. How many total calories?
Common Sugars
Common sugars:

Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.

Natural sources of fructose include fruits, vegetables (including sugar cane), and honey.
Fructose Foods
The highest dietary sources of fructose, besides pure crystalline fructose, are foods containing:


-High-fructose corn syrup
-Agave nectar
-Maple syrup
-Fruit juices
These have the highest percentages of fructose (including fructose in sucrose) per serving compared to other common foods and ingredients.

Fructose exists in foods either as a free monosaccharide or bound to glucose as sucrose, a disaccharide.
A high fasting glucose blood sugar level may be a sign of prediabetes or diabetes mellitus.
Glucose is a sugar made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight and is the key source of energy.
Refined sugars like high-fructose corn syrup are often called "empty calories" because they have little to no nutritional value.
High-fructose corn syrup is not to be confused with corn syrup, which has a high glucose content. Diets containing foods with high-frucose corn syrup contribute to the development of Type 2 Diabetes.
Glucose Foods
The majority of our carbohydrates intake should come from complex carbohydrates (starches) and naturally occurring sugars, rather than processed or refined sugars, which do not have the vitamins, minerals, and fiber found in complex and natural carbohydrates.
Glucose is also know as dextrose or grape sugar
- Pasta is rich in complex carbohydrates.

- Whole Grain Bread (without high-fructose corn syrup), (with a nutritious source of complex carbohydrates)

- Whole Grains and Whole Grain Cereals (made without high-fructose corn syrup), (also with complex carbohydrates)

- Legumes which includes beans, lentils and peas (complex carbohydates and protein)

- Potatoes are high in starch (contain iron, potassium, phosphorus, Vitamin C and magnesium)

- Dairy products including milk, yogurt and cottage cheese (all contain lactose)

- Vegetables (contain glucose often in the form of starch)

- Grapes are an especially rich source of glucose.

- Honey contains about 38% glucose.
Complex carbs keep us satisfied for longer time than foods containing simple sugars/high-fructose corn syrup.

Consumption of complex carbohydrates requires less food intake and this results in less caloric intake.

That is why complex carbs are suggested in weight maintenance diets.
Raw milk is your best natural food source for glucose
Vegetables high in starch include, corn, squash and zucchini.
Galactose is a monosaccharide simple sugar that is less sweet than glucose and fructose.
Galactose Food
-Dairy (milk, yoghurt, etc)

-Soy flour




-Dried figs
Most commonly it is
known as a component of the
milk sugar, lactose.
Foods with high amounts of galactose:
Sucrose, commonly named sugar or table sugar, is cane and beet sugar.
Sucrose is a disaccharide made up of glucose and fructose
Sucrose Foods
Sucrose is found in many plants in small amounts, but the richest edible sources include:

-Ripe dates
-Sugar beets
-Sweet peas
-Most dried fruit
-Some fresh fruit (such as mangoes and peaches)
-Many commercial baked goods are high in sucrose (contain lots of refined table sugar or baking sugar)
-Cakes, pies, cookies, donuts and candy bars
-Sweetened breakfast cereals, chocolate, peanut butter, ice cream, puddings, sweetened yogurts and even some fast foods
Sucrose tastes sweet -- which is why it’s made into granulated and baking sugars -- but not as sweet as refined fructose or artificial sweeteners.
Effect Of Heat on Sugar
When exposed to heat, sugar will at first melt into a thick syrup.

As the temperature continues to rise, the sugar syrup changes color, from clear to light yellow to a progressively deepening brown.

This browning process is called caramelization. It is a complicated chemical reaction, and in addition to color change, it also causes the flavor of the sugar to evolve and take on the rich complexity that we know to be characteristic of caramel.

Different types of sugar caramelize at different temperatures.
Effect Of Heat On Starch
Starch, a complex carbohydrate, has powerful thickening properties.

When starch is combined with water or another liquid and heated, individual starch granules absorb the liquid and swell.

This process, known as gelatinization, is what causes the liquid to thicken. Gelatinization occurs at different temperatures for different types of starch.

As a general rule of thumb, root-based starches (potato and arrowroot, for instance) thicken at lower temperatures but break down more quickly, whereas cereal-based starches (corn and wheat, for example) thicken at higher temperatures but break down more slowly.
The Maillard Reaction
In foods that are not primarily sugar or starch, a different reaction, known as the Maillard reaction, is responsible for browning.

This reaction involves sugars and amino acids (the building blocks of protein).

When heated, these components react and produce numerous chemical by-products, resulting in a brown color and intense flavor and aroma.

It is this reaction that gives coffee, chocolate, baked goods, dark beer, and roasted meats and nuts much of their rich flavor and color.
The Maillard Reaction
Though the Maillard reaction can happen at room temperature, both caramelization and the Maillard reaction typically require relatively high heat (above 300°F/149°C) to occur rapidly enough to make an appreciable difference in foods.

Because water cannot be heated above 212°F/100°C unless it is under pressure, foods cooked with moist heat (boiling, steaming, poaching, stewing) will not brown.

Foods cooked using dry-heat methods (sautéing, grilling, or roasting) will brown.

It is for this reason that many stewed and braised dishes begin with an initial browning of ingredients before liquid is added.
Milk is an emulsion or colloid of butterfat globules within a water-based fluid that contains dissolved carbohydrates and protein aggregates with minerals.

The principal requirements are:
-Energy (lipids, lactose, and protein)
-Biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids supplied by proteins (essential amino acids and amino groups)
-Essential fatty acids, vitamins and inorganic elements, and water.
You will need to know how to preform
three tests for the event.
Here are the three tests:
1. Determination of Millk Fat (lipids) from Cream
a. Transfer 150 mL of the heavy cream into a plastic 500 -600 mL bottle.
b. (The temperature of the cream should be approximately 13°C).
c. Cap the bottle carefully and shake in a horizontal position until a distinct separation of
butter particles occurs (this will take a significant amount of effort; be persistent).
d. Drain off liquid portion and discard it. What is this discarded portion called?
e. Wash the butter particles twice with cold tap water. Drain off as much water as possible.
f. Transfer the butter particles to a clean beaker.
g. Press and work the butter particles into a mass. Drain the released liquid (make an observation
about the liquid).
h. Dry the butter in paper towel and weigh the dried butter to calculate a percentage.
Determination of Curd Cheese Percentage
a. Measure 120 mL of milk in the beaker.
b. The temperature of the milk should be close to room temperature.
c. Add about 6 ml in drops of vinegar or lemon juice to the milk and gently swirl (or stir) for
30 seconds, then allow the milk to sit for 5 minutes. The casein will precipitate into heavy
white curds.
d. Cut out a piece (2-3 layers) of cheesecloth large enough to cover the top and 2 inches down
the sides of an empty beaker. Using the rubber band, fasten the cheesecloth over the top of
the beaker. Pour the curdled milk into the beaker, collecting the curds (casein) in the
cheesecloth and allowing the vinegar and whey to drain off into the bottom of the beaker.
e. After 15 minutes, gather the cheesecloth and very gently squeeze to separate the milk
solids from the whey. Set the solids to dry by spreading out the cheese cloth with the milk
solids for about 5 minutes.
f. Weigh the solids to determine and calculate the curd percentage.
Preperation of Ice Cream
a. Combine ½ cup milk, cream or half and half with 1 tablespoon of sugar, add ¼ teaspoon of
vanilla if desired.
b. Fill a 1 gallon Ziploc bag half-full with ice and add 6 tablespoons of salt. Seal the bag and
shake to mix the ice and salt.
c. In a 1 pint sized Ziploc bag place the ice cream mixture and seal the bag.
d. Place the smaller sealed bag in the large bag and mix and shake vigorously so that the ice
cream mixture is cooled and mixed well.
e. After about 5 minutes, the ice cream can be removed from the smaller plastic bag.
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates.

Exact definitions are difficult. In general, though, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlapping categories, bakers' confections and sugar confections.
Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.
It is produced commercially as a white to light brown powder, mainly extracted from citrus fruits, and is used in food as a gelling agent, particularly in jams and jellies.

It is also used in fillings, medicines, sweets, as a stabilizer in fruit juices and milk drinks, and as a source of dietary fiber.
Pectin Foods
These fruits contain peaches, apples, oranges, grapefruit and apricots.
All fruits contain pectin and there are some fruits with a lot of pectin.
Jelly and Jam also contain high sources of pectin.
Amylose is a helical polymer made of α-D-glucose units, bound to each other through α glycosidic bonds.
This polysaccharide is one of the two components of starch, making up approximately 20-30% of the structure. The other component is amylopectin, which makes up 70–80% of the structure
Amylose Foods
Amylose is of course found in starches but there are some foods that especially include amylose.
Amylose is one of the two components that make up starches the other being amylopectin.
These foods include:

-Cereal grain
-Some corn chips
Amylopectin is a soluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants.
It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylose.
Its counterpart in animals is glycogen, which has the same composition and structure, but with more extensive branching that occurs every eight to 12 glucose units.
Plants store starch within specialized organelles called amyloplasts. When energy is needed for cell work, the plant hydrolyzes the starch, releasing the glucose subunits. Humans and other animals that eat plant foods also use amylase, an enzyme that assists in breaking down amylopectin.
Test Topics
-The role of Lipids found in dairy foods !
-The role of Carbohydrates found in dairy foods !
-The role of Proteins typically found in dairy foods !
-Standard labeling regulation !
-Basic organic reactions such as esterification!
-Fat bonding !!!
-Saturated and unsaturated fats !
-Chemical structure of sugars !
-Chemical structure of starches !
-Chemical structure of fats !
-Chemical structure of proteins !
-Essential fats !
-Essential vitamins !!!
-Essential proteins !!
-How cooking changes dairy foods chemicaly !
-Allergens in dairy foods !!!

The more ! the more you need to study that
Test Topics
-Dairy food preservation !!!
-RDA (recommended daily allowance) of essential minerals and vitamins in dairy foods and the consequences of not having them !
-Freezing point depression !!!
-Non-dairy milk products !
-Lactose free milk !
-Health benefits of dairy foods !!!
-Low fat, fat free milk !
-Lactose intolerance !
-Emulsification !
-Pasteurization !
-Organic dairy products !!!
-Casein and whey protein !!
-Probiotics !!!
Whole Milk
Whole milk is packed with nutrients, is used in baking, and is beneficial for toddlers due to its higher fat content. Whole milk is high in saturated fat which is why it has a high fat content.
Whole Milk Calories
Whole milk contains 150 calories in each 1-cup serving.
Seventy of the calories in whole milk are from fat, as whole milk is a higher-fat type of milk.
In comparison, 2-percent low-fat milk provides 130 calories including 45 calories from fat

Skim milk contains just 90 calories, none of which are from fat.
Whole Milk Protein
Whole milk, like low-fat milk, is a good source of dietary protein and contains 8 grams of protein per cup.

The protein in whole milk is mainly from casein and whey proteins, and provides all essential amino acids, making whole milk a source of complete protein.

Men need at least 56 grams of protein daily and women need a minimum of 46 grams per day, which are the protein recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for adults.

Athletes, older adults, and people recovering from surgery, injury, or illness often need additional protein.
Whole Milk Carbs and Fats
A cup of whole milk contains 12 grams of total carbohydrates including 11 grams of natural sugar and 8 grams of fat.

Five of those 8 fat grams are from saturated fat, and the rest is heart-healthy unsaturated fat.

A cup of whole milk also contains about 25 milligrams of dietary cholesterol.

While saturated fat may increase your risk for heart disease if you consume too much of it, milk fat may not be as bad as once thought.

It doesn't appear to increase heart-disease risks and is associated with a lower risk for obesity
Whole Milk Vitamins and Minerals
Whole milk is packed with essential vitamins and minerals.

It's rich in calcium, vitamin D, phosphorous, potassium, vitamin A, B vitamins, and iodine.

Therefore, drinking whole milk is beneficial for healthy bones and teeth, and helps you meet daily vitamin and mineral needs.

If you're worried about getting too many calories from whole milk, choose low-fat milk instead, which contains the same amount of vitamins and minerals as whole milk but with fewer calories
2% Milk Calories
There are 122 calories per cup of 2% milk
43.3g of the calories come from fat wile 46.5g of them come from carbs.
Though 2% milk mainly consists of fat and carbs as its calories, there is still 32.2g of protein.
Whole Milk
2% Milk
1% Milk
Skim Milk
*In grams
Vit A
Vit A
Vit A
Vit A
Organic Compounds
An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.
Organic compounds may be classified in a variety of ways. One major distinction is between natural and synthetic compounds. Organic compounds can also be classified or subdivided by the presence of heteroatoms, e.g., organometallic compounds, which feature bonds between carbon and a metal, and organophosphorus compounds, which feature bonds between carbon and a phosphorus.

Another distinction, based on the size of organic compounds, distinguishes between small molecules and polymers.
Organic Reactions
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. The basic organic chemistry reaction types are addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions, photochemical reactions and redox reactions. The production of many man-made chemicals such as drugs, plastics, food additives, fabrics depend on organic reactions.
Food Intolerance
Food Intolerance is caused when the digestive system is unable to completely break down food into smaller components due to insufficient amount of enzymes produced.

Digestive enzymes are small proteins which break down food into smaller components that are possible to be absorbed by our guts.

The unabsorbed food becomes a free meal for the bacteria that live in our digestive tract.

As a result of its consumption by the bacteria we suffer the classic symptoms of bloating, tummy cramps, gas, wind and in many cases diarrhoea.

The most common form of food intolerance is lactose intolerance which affects more than half the world population.
Food Intolerance
Food intolerance is completely different from food allergy and the two should not be mixed.

Food allergy is caused by a response of the immune system against food proteins, thinking they are harmful substances.

Food intolerance is not food poisoning, which is caused by toxic substances that would cause symptoms in anyone who ate the food.

Food intolerance is not life threatening either.
Types of Food Intolerance
-Lactose Intolerance

-Baby Colic

-Carbohydrate Intolerance

-Alcohol Intolerance

-Coeliac Disease
Lactose Intolerance
Lactose Intolerance is a food intolerance people get when they cannot digest lactose.
Lactose is a dissacharride made up of glucose and galactose. It is mainly found in dairy products including milk and cheese.
Lactose Intolerance
-Cramp feeling in lower belly
-Gurgling or rumbling sounds in lower belly
-Throwing Up
Baby Colic
Baby Colic is a disease that many babies suffer from.

It is caused by a babies body not being able to produce enough lactase enzymes to digest lactose.
Baby Colic
-Baby cries loudly for 4-3 hours
-Baby often cries at same period everyday
-Baby has bowel pains
-Stomach grumbles/gas
Coeliac Disease
The Coeliac Disease is a disease in which someone cannot consume gluten.

The Coeliac Disease is caused when your body mistakes substances inside gluten for a threat to the body.

This damages your intestines, disrupting your body's ability to absorb gluten.
Coeliac Disease
-Abdominal pain
-Weight loss
-Feeling tired all the time
-Children not growing at a normal rate
Wheat Intolerance
Wheat Intolerance is caused when your digestive system can't break down gluten all the way.

Then the gluten remains in the system, irritating the digestive system, but not as bad as Coeliac.

It is also called
Non Coeliac Gluten Intolerance
Carbohydrate Intolernace
Carbohydrate Intolerance occurs when your body doesn't produce enough enzymes to break down carbohydrates.

Carbohydrate intolerance leads to decreased level of fitness and increased metabolic disorders due to accumulation of fat around the muscles.
Carbohydrate Intolerance
Hereditary Fructose Intolerance
Hereditary Fructose Intolerance (HFI) is caused by the liver not making enough aldalase B (an enzyme that bres down fructose).

Normally, once fructose is absorbed, enzymes transform fructose into glucose, the sugar our body utilises to burn energy.

Untransformed fructose remains in the blood stream and collected in the liver and kidney causing severe low sugar levels following ingestion of fructose.
Heredity Fructose Intolerance
-Excessive Sleepiness
-Intolerance for fruits
-Avoiding of fruits or fructose/sucrose foods
-Doing well after eating foods without fructose/sucrose
Alchohol Intolerance
Alchohol Intolerance is caused when your body doesn't create enough Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, an enzyme that breaks alchohol down to vinegar.

Alchohol, when not broken down, is toxic to the body.

Immediate immune response is triggered causing symptoms typical to an allergic reaction
Alchohol Intolerance
-Increased heart rate
-Lower in blood sugar
-Certain drugs like Metronidazole (antibiotic) and Griseofulvin (antifungal)
Chemical Reactions
Chemical reactions are the processes by which chemicals interact to form new chemicals with different compositions.

The substances usually found in a chemical reaction are called reactants or reagents.
A reagent is a substance or compound that is added to a system in order to bring about a chemical reaction
A reactant is more specifically a substance that is consumed in the course of a chemical reaction.
Organic Reactions
Organic Reactions are chemical reactions that include organic substances.
The basic organic chemistry reaction types are:
-Addition reactions
-Elimination reactions
-Substitution reactions
-Pericyclic reactions
-Rearrangement reactions
-Photochemical reactions
-Redox reactions.
Addition Reactions
An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one
Addition reactions are limited to chemical compounds that have multiple bonds, such as molecules with carbon-carbon double bonds, or with triple bonds.

Molecules containing carbon—hetero double bonds like carbonyl groups, or imine groups, can undergo addition as they too have double bond character.
Elimination Reaction
An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism.

The one-step mechanism is known as the E2 reaction, and the two-step mechanism is known as the E1 reaction.

In rare cases a three-step reaction called E1CB occurs.

The numbers do not have to do with the number of steps in the mechanism, but rather the kinetics of the reaction
The elimination reaction can basically be called the opposite of an addition reaction
Substitution Reaction
Substitution reaction (also known as single displacement reaction or single replacement reaction), is a chemical reaction during which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group.

Substitution reactions are of prime importance in organic chemistry.
Pericyclic reactions
A pericyclic reaction is a type of organic reaction wherein the transition state of the molecule has a cyclic geometry, and the reaction progresses in a concerted fashion.

Pericyclic reactions are usually rearrangement reactions.

They rearange diferent substances
Rearrangement Reactions
A rearrangement reaction is a broad class of organic reactions where the carbon skeleton of a molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule.

Often a substituent moves from one atom to another atom in the same molecule.
Photochemical Reaction
A photochemical reaction are chemical reaction initiated by the absorption of energy in the form of light.

The consequence of molecules’ absorbing light is the creation of transient excited states whose chemical and physical properties differ greatly from the original molecules.

It is a processwhen substances change because of light.
Redox Reaction
Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

The oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons)
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