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Anatomy & Physiology: The Endocrine System

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by

james donahue

on 28 April 2016

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Transcript of Anatomy & Physiology: The Endocrine System

Cushing's Syndrome
(increased ACTH)
Corticosteroids
aldosterone - reclaim Na+
cortisol - increase blood sugar
testosterone - increase aggression
onset of puberty
sex characteristics
sex drive
Catecholamines
AKA - sympathomimetics





epinephrine - adrenaline
norepinephrine - noradrenaline
Fight or Flight response
increased blood pressure
increased heart rate
increased blood sugar
vasoconstriction
bronchodilation
Endocrine
System

Body's second controlling system
Regulates metabolism using
hormones
Exocrine gland - releases fluids
through ducts
salivary glands release
saliva via salivary ducts
gall bladder releases bile
via the cystic duct

Endocrine gland - releases hormone
directly into the extracellular fluid
and absorbed directly into the blood

Some structures are both exocrine and endocrine
pancreas
gonads (testes/ovaries)

Target Cell
Specificity

Dependent on three factors
amount of hormone
number of receptors
affinity for binding
Thyroid and
Parathyroids
Pineal
Pituitary
Thymus
Adrenals
Pancreas
Ovaries
Testes
The Pituitary
Pituitary
Anterior Pituitary
Posterior
Pituitary
Six hormones:
hGH, PRL,
FSH, LH,
TSH, ACTH
Two hormones:
OT, ADH
Intermediate Lobe
Obliterated by age six
Releases MSH
(the melanocyte stimulating hormone)
hypo - under; phyein - to grow
AKA - hypophysis
anterior - adenohypophysis
adeno - gland
posterior - neurohypophysis
neuro - nerve
Triiodothyronine (T3)
Thyroxine (T4)
Goiter
Thyroid also releases calcitonin
stimulates osteoblasts
increases bone density
decreases blood calcium
The Thyroid
Release parathormone (PTH)
stimulates osteoclasts
decrease bone density
increase blood calcium
The Parathyroids
trachea
esophagus
pharynx
The Adrenal Glands
Cortex
Medulla
The Pancreas
alpha cells - glucagon
beta cells - insulin
convert glycogen to glucose
raise blood sugar
convert glucose to glycogen
decrease blood sugar
islets of Langerhans
Hormone interaction
permissiveness - one hormone cannot work without another
synergism - more than one hormone does the same thing
antagonism - one or more hormones oppose each other
Control of hormone release
humoral stimuli - parathormone
neural stimuli - epinephrine
hormonal stimuli - thyroxine
glomerulosum
(aldosterone)
fasciculata
(cortisol)
reticularis
(testosterone)
medulla
(epi and norepi)
Diabetes
Mellitus
Type I - IDDM (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus)
formerly Juvenile diabetes
autoimmune - too few beta cells (low insulin)
75% of individuals develop before age 30
prone to ketoacidosis
polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia
most common in Scandanavians...hmmm...
Type II - NIDDM (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus)
formerly adult/late onset diabetes
decreased insulin production or insulin insensitivity
prone to obesity
hypertension, dyslipidemia
strong genetic component (~60% of the Pima Indians of SW America)
linked to poor nutrient diet (why African Americans, but not Africans?)
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
glucose intolerance during pregnancy
may normalize after birth
1-14% of all pregnancies
40-60% will develop diabetes mellitus within15 years
Gonads
diabetes - to pass through
mellitus - honey
Male
located in the scrotum
secrete testosterone
needed for sperm production
primary and secondary sexual characteristics
stimulates libido
Female
located within the pelvis
produce estrogens and progesterone
needed for egg maturation and cyclic changes
primary and secondary sexual characteristics
Other Hormone
Secreting Organs
pineal gland
thymus
heart
stomach
small intestine
kidney
skin
placenta
http://bit.ly/L3wuhY
http://bit.ly/K2Svib
Hyperinsulinism
Be sure you can:
Your body language shapes who you are
Sugar
National Geographic
Aug. 2013
Autoimmune Diseases
of the Thyroid
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
body makes antibodies
attacking the thyroid
increased TSH,
decreased T3 and T4
hypothyroidism
Graves' disease
body makes antibodies
that
mimic
TSH
decreased TSH,
increased T3 and T4
hyperthyroidism
POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin)
Addison's Disease
ACTH receptors
but wait:
the biggest baby born
was 22 lbs. 8 oz.
28 inches long
September 1955
in Italy...
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