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The Scale of the Universe
Transcript of The Scale of the Universe
Micrometer (μm) (Diameter)
Megameter (Mm) (Diameter)
Gigameter (Gm) (Diameter)
Meter (m) (Diameter)
2,300 km | 2.3 x 106 meters
Pluto is the smallest planet in our solar system. In fact, it is so small that some scientists don’t even consider it as a planet! Despite the fact that Pluto is smaller than 7 of the moons in our solar system (including our own) it has 4 moons of its own.
3,500 km | 3.5 x 106 meters
The moon is the second brightest object in the sky, however, the surface of the moon is very dark and the brightness that we see is the reflection of the sunlight on the moon’s surface. The moon is very important to the earth and the gravitational influence produces ocean tides and sea levels.
4,900 km | 4.9 x 106 meters
Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. It takes 86 days to orbit the sun but takes 56 days to spin on its axis and as it has no atmosphere so the sky is always pitch black!
6,800 km | 6.8 x 108 meters
Mars is also known as the Red Planet! There is evidence that it once had rivers, lakes and oceans but due to the deterioration of the atmosphere, the water began to evaporate permanently.
9.3 billion-light years
9.3 x 10 meters
12,000 km | 1.2 x 107 meters
Venus is also known as the Earth’s sister planet, with the same size, chemistry and density, venus could have inhabited life but because it is slightly closer to the sun than the earth, it is too hot and surrounded by too much toxic gas
12,700 km | 1.27 x 107 meters
Earth is the planet we live on. It is the most unique planet in our solar system as it is the only planet where life exists, inhabiting 7 billion people. The surface is made up of 70% water and 30% land.
49,000 km | 4.9 x 107 meters
Neptune is the windiest planet in our solar system with wind speeds reaching 1200 miles an hour! it has a total of 6 rings and 13 moons surrounding the planet.
51,000 km | 5.1 x 107 meters
Uranus is the coldest planet in our solar system with freezing temperature of -224°c. Unlike all the other planets, Uranus has a very tilted axis causing it to spin on its side, this is said to be caused by the gravitational pull of one of its moon.
120,000 km | 1.2 x 108 meters
Saturn is made up of clouds of gas which is gradually turned into liquid which gives it a sea of chemicals on the surface
140,000 km | 1.4 x 108 meters
Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. There are never ending storms which can be seen from the colourful clouds of gas on the surface. The red dot on the planet known as the ‘eye of Jupiter’ is a storm that has been active for over 300 years.
1.4 million km | 1.4 x 109 meters
The sun was born when a cloud of gas and dust began to fall and form its own gravitational centre. This created huge amount of heat and energy and eventually the sun was born. The sun is made up of 98% of matter in our solar system (2% is made up of all the planets, rocks and comets) so it is very large!
320m | 3.2 x 102 meters
The Eiffel Tower was the tallest man made structure for 41 years. Made entirely of 10,000 tonnes of iron, it is a main attraction of France with 250 million tourists annually. It requires at least 50 tonnes of paint every 7 years to prevent it from rust!
270m | 2.7 x 102 meters
The Titanic left Southampton on April 10th 1912 and sank on April 14th 1912 when it hit an iceberg. It used 825 tonnes of coal per day to power the cruise ship and carried 3457 passengers.
The Great Wall of China is the longest man made structure in the world! The total construction time was over 2000 years and took over 300000 soldiers to build using stones, wood, rocks and earth.
Great Wall Of China
9000km | 9x103 meters
The London Eye is the tallest Ferris wheel in Europe! It is visited by 3.5 million people a year and has 32 capsules on the wheel numbered 1-33 because the number 13 was left out for good luck.
135m | 1.35 x 102 meters
The Mount Everest is situated between the border of China and India. It is over 60 million years old, consisting if limestone and marble and is constantly growing.
8.8 km| 8.8 x 103 meters
The London bus is one of London’s most principle icons and is used to transport people around big cities. The Double Decker has been around since 1840s and they were initially horse drawn but became motorised in 1920s and the design of these buses are still evolving today!
1190000km | 1.19 x109 meters
Sirius is the brightest star in the nights sky and is 20 times brighter than our sun. There are actually 2 stars, Sirius A and Sirius B but we only see Sirius A as it is twice as big as Sirius B.
6.1 x1010 meters
This red super giant exists in a binary system with Aldebaran A and B, B being smaller and dimmer than A. Although bigger than our sun, it is actually cooler because the surface is further away from the core.
1.2 x 1012 meters
Antare is a red super giant is part of our solar system. As well as being very bright, it is well known for having a lot of mass.
2.2 x 1012 meters
This is one of the largest stars in our galaxy! This red super giant is near the end of its life now and is predicted to form a massive supernova explosion anytime soon!
VY canis majoris
1.9 x 1012 meters
This is a red hypergiant which has a shorter life span than all the other stars. Even though hypergiants are usually the largest and most luminous, VY canis majoris is not considered to be one of the brightest stars in our sky.
Milky way galaxy
120 x 103 (ly) | 1.2 x1021 meters
The Milky Way is the galaxy that you live in! Our solar system is found in the quieter part of the galaxy about half way out form the centre. The Milky Way takes 200million years to complete one rotation and is made up of 100 billion stars!
150 x 103 ly | 1.5 x 1021 meters
Andromeda is our galactic neighbor which means it is one of the galaxy next to our own, the Milky Way. It is the only galaxy that can be seen with the naked eye and it has been predicted that one day (few billion years from now) the 2 galaxies will meet and form a colossal galaxy
No, not the machines that you use to cook your food with! They are part of the electromagnetic spectrum and are useful in many ways. Due to the heat they can produce, they are used to cook food but are also able send text messages and allow you to watch TV! Some people may think that exposure to microwaves can damage our health, but this is not yet proven by scientists.
1 x 10-3
Did you know 30000-40000 dead skin cells are produced every minute by your body? That’s a total of 8 pounds of skin in 1 year! Your skin is the largest organ in your body, made up with skin cells, it can keep your body warm as well as protect and heal your body!
30 x 10-6
Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body to make sure that all the organs and cells have enough oxygen to function. The cells start at the lungs and travel to the heart to be pumped around the body, then once the oxygen has been used up, it travels back to the lungs and the cycle repeats again!
Red Blood Cells
8 x 10-6
The cell nucleus is like the cell brain! It controls the movement, eating and reproduction of the cell and is found in the middle of the cell because the edges of the cell is very dangerous for cell nuclei to be.
6 x 10-6
Visible light is the light we can see, so this includes all the colours from Red to Violet. When all these colours merge, white light is produced and this is what we see. Visible light is extremely useful for us as it allows us to see but it is also useful for animals which use visible light to navigate around.
400-700 x 10-9
DNA 3 x 10-9
DNA is what makes you unique. Everybody has different DNA structures as it carries our genetic information. it is made up of many sections called genes and these are filled with information that make us who we are.
3 x 10-9
X-rays are used for medical purposes. It cannot pass through bones so this makes it very useful to look for fractures in bones. It can also be used to see through other materials such as Egyptian tombs and ancient artefacts.
1 x 10-10
Glucose is type of sugar which is the result of digested food that contains starch. Glucose is like fuel for our cells; it is carried in our bloodstream and can be a source of energy!
1 x 10-9
Robins are the most commonly known bird in the UK. They have a easily recognisable red-orange chest and a very identifiable song call. Like many birds, they live on a diet of worms and insects and like to nest in grass and dead leaves.
13cm | 1.3 x 10-1
The pound coin was first issued in 1983. Before then, one pound was given as a note. There are over 20 different designs for the pound coin and it is made slightly thicker so that it is distinguishable to pennies.
22.5mm | 2.25 x 10-2
Oats are a nutritious source of protein and fibre. Used in many cooking recipes, you may be familiar with oats in your porridge or flapjacks but there are many other uses for oats such as in cakes, cookies and even drinks!
5mm | 5x 10-2
Large hadron Collider
8.6km | 8.6 x 103
The Large Hadron Collider is located on the border of Switzerland and France. It is used to conduct scientific experiments using magnets to speed up particles which collide together. Experiments like this has resulted in the discovery of the Higgs Boson
51m | 5.1 x101
This beautiful waterfall is located on the border of USA and Canada and attracts many tourists every year. It has only frozen completely in 1848 due to an ice jam in the river which gave scientists plenty of time to recover artifacts from the river bed!
British Airways Boeing 777-300
64.8m | 6.48 x 101
This plane can fly up to 300 passengers towards North America and Asia. It is very quiet considering the fact that it travels up to 950km/h!
4m | 4 x 101
Hippos are the 3rd largest mammals living on land. They can live up to 50 years old in rivers and swamps in Africa. Although they may look like unharmful animals, they are actually extremely aggressive and often dangerous! So watch out!
1.75m | 1.75 x 101
If you can read this, you are most like a human or an incredibly smart computer. With the population of humans surpassing 7 billion, even if you could meet a person every second, it'd still take 200 years to meet everyone on the planet!
Amoeba are unicellular which means that they are only one cell. Some amoebae can grow up to 700 micrometers which is almost an entire millimeter!
350 micrometers| 3 x 10-2 m
Most people don't like ants but did you know nearly 15-25% of all land mammals are ants?
4 milimeters| 4 x 10-3 m