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Renaissance in Northern Europe
Transcript of Renaissance in Northern Europe
Renaissance means "rebirth" in the French language.The Renaissance was a rebirth in many ways. It began in Northern Italy about 1350 right after the Black Death had ravaged the country, killing from a third to half the population. One of the earliest pieces of Renaissance literature was the Decameron written by GIOVANNI BOCCACCIO (1313-1375).
The Early "Independent" Portrait
Jan van Eyck: The Arnoifini Double
Portrait, 1434(oil on wood; 32" x23")
Rogier van der Weyden: The Deposition
(Descent from the Cross), 1435 (oil on wood)
Chateou de Chambord
One of the most famous examples of Renaissance architecture.
The Political Situation in Italy
The Renaissance began in the Italian city-states because they had the wealth from the commerce and trade of the Middle Ages. For some time, Venice had outfitted the crusaders and was the conduit for the silk and spice trade from India and China
Furthermore, the Byzantines and the Moslems cross-fertilized these urban city-stateseith their cultural ideas.
"Humanism" is the name given to the basic Philosophical orientation of the Renaissance
FRANCISCO PETRACH (1304-1374)
is known as the Father of Humanism
He labeled the Middle Ages as "a time of darkness."
Another Latin scholar LORENZO VALLA
(1406-1457) developed the technique of
critical textual analysis through the language
(philology). Valla proved that a document allegedly written in the 4th century A.D., The Donation of Constantine, could not have possibly been written then. It used Latin words unknown in the 4th century. It was instead, an 8th century forgery. Valla's On the False Donation of Constantine (1444) was a thorough textual investigation and influenced many subsequent scholars.
The Platonic Academy of Philosophy
The center of humanist study was the Platonic Academy of Philosophy in Florence, founded by Cosimo de' Medici in 1462.
Neoplatonism was a movement that blended of classical thought with Christian doctrine and sometimes astrology. The Neoplatonists formed and unofficial academy in Florence under the patronage of Cosimo De Medici and the inspiration of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499) and Pico Della Mirandola (1463-1494). Facino translated Plato's works from Greek to Latin. The Academy even held birthday parties for Plato. Many famous artists, such as Michelangelo and Botticelli, became advocates of Neplatonism. Pico penned the "Oration on the Dignity of Man," which accorded humans a special rank in the universe, somewhere between the beasts and angels.
The greatest architect of the Early Renaissance was Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446), whose triumph is the dome of Florence Cathedral. Measuring 138 1/2' wide and 367' high, it was the largest dome since the Pantheon built in 125 c.e. Although influenced by antique architecture, the octagonal dome of Florence Cathedral does not look like the hemispherical dome of the ancient Roman Pantheon.
The Creation of Adam and Eve
Paintings of the Early Renaissance
Trinity of the Virgin
The Renaissance interest in lifelike portraiture can be seen in these life-size depictions.
Early Renaissance Music
March 15,1436 was a day of dedication for the completed Florence Cathedral, now crowned by Brunelleschi's extraordinary dome. One of the greatest figures in Renaissance music was the composer Guillaume Dufay.
More than any other composer, Guillaume Dufay shaped the musical language of the Early Renaissance.
Dufay wrote music in all the popular genres of his time: masses for liturgies, Latin motets, or compositions for multiple voices; music for ceremonies; and French and Italian chansons, or sons for the pleasure of his patrons and friends.
1543' studies inspired interests in human anatomy
Even though, around 1450, the writings of Nicholas Cusanus were anticipating Copernicus' heliocentric world-view, it was made in a philosophical fashion. Science and art were very much intermingled in the early Renaissance, with polymath artists such as Leonardo de Vinci making observational drawings of anatomy and nature. He set up controlled experiments in water flow, medical dissection, and systematic study of movement and aerodynamics; he devised principles of research method that led to Fritjof Capra classifying him as "father of modern science".
Alexander VI, a Borgia pope infamous for his corruption
The progress made during the Renaissance is all the more remarkable because through much of this period, the region was beset by wandering bands of soldiers called condottieri. These were mercenaries, both foreign and domestic, who came to Italy looking for opportunities to acquire wealth by strength of arms. This could be by out-right stealing, or they might be hired by a local city state.
The High Renaissance begins around 1485 or 1490 in Italy. Only one generation long, the High Renaissance was a short yet extremely important period that was to prove enormously influential on future art.
In the High Renaissance, focus shifted from Florence to Rome due to the wealth and power of the popes.
THE REINVENTION OF ROME
In the middle of the fifteenth century, Pope Nicholas V had close ties to the Florentine humanists, especially to Leon Battista Alberti, who made a massive survey of classical architecture, De re aedificatoria. With Alberti as his chief consultant, Nicholas V began to rebuild Rome's ancient churches and initiated plans to remake the Vatican as a new sacred city. Nicholas V also began to assemble a massive classical library, paying humanist scholars to translate ancient Greek texts into Latin. The Vatican library became one of the chief preoccupations of Pope Sixtus IV.
The Last Supper
By Leonardo Da Vinci
The term "Mannerism" is derived from the Italian maniera (manner of style, suggesting affection). Mannerism coincides with a period of political and religious unrest. The sack of Rome in 1527 by the troops of Charles V, six months of destruction and murder, undermined the confidence of the Renaissance humanists. Mannerism was a departure from Renaissance ideals. Whereas Renaissance painting was characterized by clear presentations of subject matter, balanced compositions, normal body proportions, scientific spatial constructions, and preference for primary colors, Mannerist painting, in contrast, was characterized by intentionally obscure subject matter, unbalanced compositions, bodies with distorted proportions and contorted poses, confusing spatial constructions, and a preference for secondary and acidic colors. Facial expressions may be strained or inappropiate for the subject. Aesthetic forms became of greater concern than context.
THE VENICE GHETTO
A Jewish presence in Venice dates back to the early fourteenth century, and in 1381 the city had authorized Jews to live in the city, practice usury---the lending of money with interest---and sell secondhand clothes and objects, which led to the profession of pawnbroking. In 1397, all Jews were expelled, ostensibly because of irregularities that had been discovered in the monetary practices of Jewish bankers and merchants. The city found itself in a quandary about where they should live. Finally, on March 29, 1516, a substantial majority of the Senate approved a proposal to move the Jews en masse to an islet linked to the rest of the city by two points of access that could be closed at night. In this way, Venice could make use of the skills---and money ---of the Jewish community and still segregate them. Soon, the island itself was called Ghetto Nuovo, and the word "ghetto" entered the language and came to be used throughout Europe to describe the aresa where Jewish communities were to be found.
Thomas J. Kehoe, Harold E Damero, and Jose Marie Duvall, "Exploring Western Civilation to 1648: A Worktext for the Active Student".pp 411-436
Arts and Culture " An introduction to the Humanities, 4th Edition Janetta Rebold Benton, Robert DiYanni