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Research on Urban Agriculture for the School of Environment, University of Toronto

Final presentation for ENV421

Debapriya Chakraborty

on 5 April 2014

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Transcript of Research on Urban Agriculture for the School of Environment, University of Toronto

Urban Agriculture
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
What is Urban Agriculture?
Findings: Sample Quality
Research Questions
-Survey Results

Urban Sustainability vs Benefits
- $$ > benefits

Suggested Action
- City Design
- More education

Future Research
- More connection between pollution and urban garden benefit
Natalia Blicharska, Debapriya Chakraborty, Janani Maheswaran, Michael Li, Gowthaman Rajakumar
Pitfalls of Urban Gardening
• Soil contamination
• Other sources of pollution
• Other restricting factors

Benefits of Urban Gardening
• Environmental benefits
• Physical health benefits
• Mental and spiritual health benefits

Gaps in the Literature
• Not much overlap between the many aspects of urban gardening
• Lack of information relating to how the general public feels about urban gardening

Do Torontonians prefer consuming food grown in urban settings?
Are Torontonians willing to grow their own food?
Research Questions
“The many great gardens of the world, of literature and poetry, of painting and music, of religion and architecture, all make the point as clear as possible: The soul cannot thrive in the absence of a garden. If you don't want paradise, you are not human; and if you are not human, you don't have a soul.”
- Sir Thomas More (1476-1535)
Eaton Centre
Yorkdale Mall
Benefits of urban agriculture
Lower Ecological Footprint
Food Security
Health Benefits
Social Cohesion
Rooftop Garden
Community Garden
Backyard Garden
Balcony Garden
This information can extrapolated to understand:
Torontonians' attitudes about urban agriculture
Whether these attitudes are aligned with present opinions regarding the development of urban agriculture
How this information can be used to further urban agricultural development in the future
Based on existing evidence about the dangers/hazards related to urban gardening, are those concerns valid/legitimate?
If so, what are they and what are the reasons behind said concerns?
Do Torontonians have any concerns with urban agriculture?
Literature Review
Created Questionnaire
Visited malls around Toronto to gauge people's opinions on urban gardening and to obtain a diverse sample population
Collated the responses using Google Forms and then used Microsoft Excel to analyse the data

Findings: Sample Analysis
Abiye, T. A., Sulaiman, H., & Hailu, A. (2011). Metal concentration in vegetables grown in the
hydrothermally affected area in ethiopia. Journal of Geography and Geology, 3(1), 86-93.

Achilleas Christoforidis; Nikolaos Stamatis “Heavy metal contamination in street dust and roadside soil
along the major national road in Kavala's region, Greece” Geoderma (July 2009), 151 (3-4), 257-263.

Agrawal, M., Singh, B., Rajput, M., Marshall, F., & Bell, J. N. B. (2003). Effect of air pollution on
peri-urban agriculture: a case study. Environmental Pollution,126(3), 323-329.

Armstrong, D. (2000). A survey of community gardens in upstate New York: Implications for health
promotion and community development. Health & Place,6(4), 319-327.

Bellows, A. C., Brown, K., & Smit, J. (2004). Health benefits of urban agriculture. Community Food
Security Coalition's North American Initiative on Urban Agriculture. Portland, OR: Community Food Security Coalition.

Brinkley, C. (2012). Evaluating the Benefits of Peri-Urban Agriculture. Journal of Planning Literature,
Vol 27(3), 259-269. DOI: 10.1177/0885412211435172

Bryman, A. & Teevan, J.J. (2005). Social Research Methods (Canadian edition). Oxford: Oxford
University Press.

Chabukdhara, M., & Nema, A. K. (2012). Heavy metals assessment in urban soil around industrial
clusters in Ghaziabad, India: Probabilistic health risk approach. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety.

E. Sipter; E. Rozsa; K. Gruiz; E. Tatrai; V. Morvai “Site-specific risk assessment in contaminated
vegetable gardens” Chemosphere (April 2008), 71 (7), 1301-1307.

Hansen, J., Holm, L., Frewer, L., Robinson, P., & Sandøe, P. (2003). Beyond the knowledge deficit:
recent research into lay and expert attitudes to food risks. Appetite, 41(2), 111-121.

Howard, Brian Clark. (2012, September 8). Urban Farming Is Growing a Green Future. National

Hua Zhang, Zhaofeng Wang, Yili Zhang, Zhongjun Hu, The effects of the Qinghai–Tibet railway on
heavy metals enrichment in soils, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 439, 15 November 2012, Pages 240-248, ISSN 0048-9697, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.09.027.

Kingsley, J. Y., Townsend, M., & Henderson‐Wilson, C. (2009). Cultivating health and wellbeing:
members' perceptions of the health benefits of a Port Melbourne community garden. Leisure studies, 28(2), 207-219.

Konkel, Lindsey. (2013, February 27) Produce from Urban Gardens can contain lead. liveScience.

Koont, S. (2008). A Cuban Success Story: Urban Agriculture. Review of Radical Political
Economics, Volume 40, No. 3, 285-291. DOI: 10.1177/0486613408320016.

Lautenschlager, L., & Smith, C. (2007). Beliefs, knowledge, and values held by inner-city youth about
gardening, nutrition, and cooking. Agriculture and Human Values, 24(2), 245-258.

Li, X., Poon, C. S., & Liu, P. S. (2001). Heavy metal contamination of urban soils and street dusts in
Hong Kong. Applied Geochemistry, 16(11), 1361-1368.

Liu, X., Song, Q., Tang, Y., Li, W., Xu, J., Wu, J., ... & Brookes, P. C. (2013). Human health risk
assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: A multi-medium analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 463, 530-540.

Madaleno, I. (2000). Urban agriculture in Belém, Brazil. Cities, Volume 17, No 1, 73-77.

Mason, D., & Knowd, I. (2010). The emergence of urban agriculture: Sydney, Australia.
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, Volume 8, 62-71. DOI: 10.3763/ijas.2009.0474.

N. Sridhara Chary, C.T. Kamala D. Samuel Suman Raj (2008). Assessing risk of heavy metals from
consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 69: 513–524.

Orsini, F., Kahane, R., Nono-Womdim, R., & Gianquinto, G. (2013). Urban agriculture in the
developing world: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, Volume 33, 695-720. DOI: 10.1007/s13593-013-0143-z.

Smith, Diana Lee. (2010). Cities Feeding People: An update on urban agriculture in equatorial Africa.
Environment and Urbanization. 22: 483-499

Wakefield, Sarah., Yeudall, Fiona., Taron, Carolin., Reynolds, Jennifer., Skinner, Anna. (2007).
Growing Urban Health: Community Gardening in South East Toronto. Health Promotion International. 22: 92-101.

William G. Cutler, Roger C. Brewer, Aly El-Kadi, Nguyen V. Hue, Patrick G. Niemeyer, John Peard,
Chittaranjan Ray, Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 442, 1 January 2013, 177-188, ISSN 0048-9697.

Zhao, H., & Li, X. (2013). Risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediment along an urban–rural
gradient. Environmental Pollution, 174, 297-304.
Works Cited:
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