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Islamic Architecture

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by

Kadee Borg

on 7 October 2014

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Transcript of Islamic Architecture

Islamic
Architecture
Mosques
7th century to Modern Era



By: Kadee Borg
Types of Architecture
Hypostyle
Four-Iwan
The Centrally-Planned Mosque
Modern
Hypostyle
7th century
Four-Iwan
11th century
The Centrally-Planned
15th century
Modern
New Age
Parts of a Mosque
Courtyard (Sahn)
Has to be able to hold the entire male population of town
Sahn is usually across from prayer room
Parts of a Mosque
Niche (Mihrab)
On the Qibla wall
-Qibla- wall facing Mecca
Concave wall
Parts of a Mosque
Minaret (tower)
Tower is adjacent or attached to mosque
This is where the prayer is announced
Different kinds:
Pencil- Ottoman Empire
Spiral- Samarra

Parts of a Mosque
Dome (Qubba)
Not required but are commonly used
Called 'Vault of Heaven'
Very ornate because it's the closest place in the mosque to heaven
Some domes are different heights and depths depending on architecture type
Parts of a Mosque
Requirements of all mosque and other common traits
Kocatepe Mosque Ankara, Turkey
The Great Mosque of Samarra, Iraq
Blue Mosque Istanbul, Turkey
Blue Mosque Istanbul, Turkey
Sheikh Zayed Mosque
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Jame Mosque of Yazd Yazd, Iran
Hypostyle
Consists of a large courtyard surrounded by long hallways lined by columns
Based on the design of Muhammad's home in Medina
Often had Roman style bell towers and arches
The style was widely used until the 11th century
Replaced by Four-Iwan style
Four-Iwan
Consists of a large courtyard in the middle of mosque, with four large vaulted spaces on each side
Based of Persian architecture
Mainly found in Persian areas (Iran)
The vaulted space facing Mecca is often the largest and most decorated (Imperial Arch)
Easily converts from Hypostyle to Iwan style
Centrally-Planned
Created during the Ottoman Empire because they disliked the Four-Iwan
Based on the Byzantine churches
Which had high domes in the center
Most based on Hagia Sophia
Designed by Sinan -Ottoman architect
Interiors are octagonal space made more spacious by massive arches that push back into the wall with other small and large arches
Modern
A mix of different styles
Russian-Islamic Chinese-Islamic, French-Islamic, etc
Or modern architecture with the aspects necessary for it to be a Mosque
Patronage
Wealthy patrons often donate to mosques
Names of patrons are often incorporated into the artwork of the mosque
The best patrons were the Sultans in the Ottoman Empire
Most mosques in Turkey consist of not only the mosque but also a soup kitchen, hospital, several schools, public baths, and a hotel for travelers
Decor
Geometric and vegetation motifs are most common throughout time
Calligraphy is also very common and is a very important part of mosques
http://www.airpano.ru/files/Mosque-Istanbul-Turkey/2-2
St. Petersburg Mosque
An Nur Mosque Waalwijk, Netherlands
King Fahd Mosque Lannesdorf, Germany
Strasburg Mosque France
Selimiye Mosque Turkey
Great Mosque Qairawan Tunisia
Great Mosque Qairawan Tunisia
Friday Mosque Isfahan, Iran
In Germany
Crystal Mosque, Kuala Terengganu Malaysia
Masjid Khazakstan
Kul Sharif Mosque Kazan, Russia
Friday Mosque Isfahan, Iran
Mosque of Cordoba Spain
Muhammad's home in Medina
Nasir Al-Mulk 'Pink Mosque' Iran
St. Petersburg Mosque
Friday Mosque Isfahan, Iran
St. Petersburg Mosque Russia
Sources
www.khanacademy.org
www.beautifulmosque.com
www.huffingtonpost.com
"Masd̲j̲id." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2014. Reference. Texas Christian University. 26 September 2014 <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/masd-j-id-COM_0694>First appeared online: 2012 First Print Edition: isbn: 9789004161214, 1960-2007
"Istanbul." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2014. Reference. Texas Christian University. 26 September 2014 <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/istanbul-COM_1411> First appeared online: 2012 First Print Edition: isbn: 9789004161214, 1960-2007
"Iran." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2014. Reference. Texas Christian University. 26 September 2014 <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/iran-COM_1409> First appeared online: 2012 First Print Edition: isbn: 9789004161214, 1960-2007
"Architecture." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2014. Reference. Texas Christian University. 26 September 2014 <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/architecture-COM_0062> First appeared online: 2012 First Print Edition: isbn: 9789004161214, 1960-2007
"Art." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2014. Reference. Texas Christian University. 26 September 2014 <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/art-DUM_0410> First appeared online: 2012 First Print Edition: isbn: 9789004161214, 1960-2007
Grabar, O.. "Īwān." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2014. Reference. Texas Christian University. 26 September 2014 <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/i-wa-n-SIM_3713> First appeared online: 2012 First Print Edition: isbn: 9789004161214, 1960-2007
Koch, Ebba. "Mut̲h̲amman." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2014. Reference. Texas Christian University. 26 September 2014 <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/mut-h-amman-SIM_5671> First appeared online: 2012 First Print Edition: isbn: 9789004161214, 1960-2007

http://www.airpano.com/Project-AirPano.phpw.
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