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ORGB 1105 - Ch 2, 3, & 4

Individual Behaviour, Personality, Values, Perception and Learning in Organizations

Anthony Okuchi

on 1 October 2018

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Transcript of ORGB 1105 - Ch 2, 3, & 4

Natural aptitudes
Learned capabilities
Competencies (skills, knowledge, & aptitudes) lead to superior performance
Person job matching
Chapter 3 - how perceptions affect employees, and how you can use this understanding to be a better manager
Role Perceptions
Situational Factors
Behaviour & Results
Chapter 2
Individual Behaviour, Personality, and Values
Emotions & Attitudes
MARS Model
Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behaviour


training them to be the best
Beliefs about what behaviour is required to achieve the desired results:
understanding what tasks to perform
understanding relative importance of tasks
understanding preferred behaviours to accomplish tasks
Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behaviour
work facilities
the path which people engage in their effort.
the effort allocated to the goal.
continuing the effort for a certain amount of time.
natural talents.
physical and mental skills learned.
picking the best
putting them into the best [job possible]
only 39% of Canadian employees know what to do in their own jobs to achieve business goals.
do they understand what they have to do?
do they know what is important?
do they know the best way to do work?
An ability to smell fear is something I have never seen on a resume before...
The definition of Personality
Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviours that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics
External traits – observable behaviours
Internal states – thoughts, values, etc inferred from behaviours
Some variability, adjust to suit the situation
Pg. 28-29
Nature vs Nurture
Heredity explains about half of behavioural tendencies and 30% of temperament preferences
Minnesota studies of twins, including those separated at birth, very similar behaviour patterns
Nurture also counts -- socialization, life experiences, learning
Personality stabilizes over time -- executive function
Five-Factor Model of Personality (CANOE)



Openess to Experience

Pg. 30-31
careful, dependable, self-disciplined
People with a high score
People with a low score
courteous, good-natured, empathic, caring
anxious, hostile, depressed
imaginative, creative, curious, sensitive
outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive
careless, less thorough, disorganized, irresponsible
uncooperative, short-tempered, irritable
poised, secure, calm
less open to new ideas, conventional, and fixed in ways
comfortable being alone, non necessarily lacking in social skills
Pg. 26-27
Personality in OB
Conscientiousness and emotional stability
Motivational components of personality
Strongest personality predictors of performance

Linked to sales and mgt performance
Related to social interaction and persuasion

Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness

Openness to experience
Linked to higher creativity and adaptability to change
Jungian Personality Theory
Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung
Identifies preferences for perceiving the environment and obtaining/processing information
Commonly measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Can any model accurately reflect the nuances of human personality?
Are four dimensions adequate to describe the unique characteristics?
Delves into the pseudo-science and critics compare it to behavioural characteristics of astrological signs.
However, 2MM people participate annually in the assessment and it remains the most popular system available today.*
Myers-Briggs (MBTI)
Extroversion versus introversion (E or I)
similar to five-factor dimension

Sensing versus intuition (S or N)
collecting information through senses versus through intuition, inspiration or subjective sources

Thinking versus feeling (T or F)
processing and evaluating information
using rational logic versus personal values

Judging versus perceiving (J or P)
orient themselves to the outer world
order and structure or flexibility and spontaneity
Ponder, what would an INFP be like in the workplace?
What is your opinion on whether you "become who you are", or "you are what you are?"
*consulting psychologists press, inc, accessed Jun 2012, http://www.skepdic.com/myersb.html
"If one does not understand a person, one tends to regard him as a fool." Carl Jung
The legalese...
Key message is to be careful.
Trends are to use personality tests in pre-employment screening.

Attempt to get external validity on how the screen ensures candidate fit for the role they are applying for.

Clinical and diagnosis-based tests should be avoided as they can be construed as medical test which is screening for a disability.
So, can I use personality tests to screen new hires?
Generally acceptable as long as the test is valid, job-related and not a medical examination.
Remember that testing is only one tool out of the many that should be employed together.

Largely influenced by Carl Rogers in the late 40's and enjoying a resurgence
An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations
“Who am I?” and “How do I feel about myself?”
Guides individual decisions and behaviour
Value is that employees feel more engaged when personal self-concept is supported.

When change management incorporates individuals self-concept, it is easier to roll out.
The 3 C's of Self-Concept
People have multiple self-concepts

Improved wellbeing when multiple self-concepts require similar personality traits and values

Clearly and confidently described, internally consistent, and stable across time.
Self-concept clarity requires self-concept consistency
* People, Planet, Profits
3 "Selves" of Self-Concept
Promoting and protecting our positive self-view

Affirming our existing self-concept (good and bad elements)

Evaluating ourselves through self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control
ie. competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, valued
Strongest in common/important situations
Positive self-concept outcomes:
better personal adjustment and mental/physical health
inflates personal causation and probability of success
The Social Self
Motivation to verify and maintain our existing self-concept
Stabilizes our self-concept
People prefer feedback consistent with their self-concept
Self-verification outcomes:
We ignore or reject info inconsistent with self-concept
We interact more with those who affirm/reflect self-concept
Defined mainly by three dimensions:
Global self-evaluation
High self-esteem -- less influenced, more persistent/logical
Belief in one’s ability, motivation, role perceptions, and situation to complete a task successfully (i.e. MARS)
General vs task-specific self-efficacy
Locus of control
General belief about personal control over life events
Higher self-evaluation with internal locus of control
Social identity -- defining ourselves in terms of groups to which we belong or have an emotional attachment
We identify with groups that have high status -- aids self-enhancement
Lives in Canada
Teaches at BCIT
Graduated at Queens University
Employees at other firms
People living in other countries
Identity #1
Identity #2
Identity #3
People graduating from other schools
Values in the Workplace
Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences
Define right or wrong, good or bad
Value system -- hierarchy of values
Espoused vs. enacted values:
Espoused -- the values we say and often think we use
Enacted -- values we actually rely on to guide our decisions and actions
Ask yourself, what are the different values at where I work, teammates, or schoolmates?
Schwartz's Value Model
Openness to change – motivation to pursue innovative ways

Conservation -- motivation to preserve the status quo

Self-enhancement -- motivated by self-interest

Self-transcendence -- motivation to promote welfare of others and nature
Values and Behaviour
Habitual behaviour usually consistent with values, but conscious behaviour less so because values are abstract constructs
Decisions and behaviours linked to values when:
Mindful of our values
Have logical reasons to apply values in that situation
Situation does not interfere
Where two or more entities have similar value systems
Problems with incongruence
Incompatible decisions
Lower satisfaction/loyalty
Higher stress and turnover
Benefits of incongruence
Better decision making (diverse perspectives)
Avoids “corporate cults”
Employees today are looking for companies that align with their core values creating 'values congruence'
Openness to change
Values across Cultures
Degree that people value duty to their group (collectivism) versus independence and person uniqueness (individualism)

Previously considered opposites, but unrelated -- i.e. possible to value high individualism and high collectivism
Individualism and Collectivism
The degree to which people value personal freedom, self-sufficiency, control over themselves, being appreciated for unique qualities
The degree to which people value their group membership and harmonious relationships within the group
Power Distance
High power distance
Value obedience to authority
Comfortable receiving commands from superiors
Prefer formal rules and authority to resolve conflicts

Low power distance
expect relatively equal power sharing
view relationship with boss as interdependence, not dependence
Uncertainty Avoidance
High uncertainty avoidance
feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty
value structured situations and direct communication

Low uncertainty avoidance
tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty
Achievement - Nurturing
High achievement orientation

High nurturing orientation
others’ well-being
Three Ethical Principles
Greatest good for the greatest number of people

Fundamental entitlements in society

People who are similar should receive similar benefits
Individual Rights
Distributive Justice
Influences on Ethical Conduct
Moral intensity
degree that issue demands ethical principles

Ethical sensitivity
ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue

Situational influences
competitive pressures and other conditions affect ethical behaviour
Supporting Ethical Behaviour
Ethical code of conduct

Ethics training

Ethics officers

Ethical leadership and culture
The End
Pg. 32-34
Pg. 35
Pg. 36-38
Pg. 39-42
Pg. 43-44
- the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us

deciding which information to notice

how to categorize this information

how to interpret information within our existing knowledge framework
The Perceptual Process
Pg. 54-56
Characteristics of the object
size, intensity, motion, repetition, novelty

Characteristics of the perceiver
Emotional marker process
Self-concept and beliefs

Confirmation bias
Screen out information contrary to our beliefs/values
Selective Attention
Hold off on making initial judgements. Gather more information before making a conclusion.

Ask others for input

Develop better self-awareness - ask yourself how others might perceive the situation

Look at the conditions at the '30,000 ft' level

Look at an issue from another angle (i.e. from the 'bottom up')
How to avoid these problems
Selective Attention Test
Categorical thinking
Mostly nonconscious process of organizing people/things

Perceptual grouping principles
Similarity or proximity
Closure -- filling in missing pieces
Perceiving trends

Interpreting incoming information
Emotional markers automatically evaluate information
Perceptual Organization/Interpretation
Broad world-views or ‘theories-in-use’

Help us to quickly make sense of situations
Fill in missing pieces
Help to predict events

Problem with mental models:
May block recognition of new opportunities/perspectives
Mental Models in Perception
Mental Models - the professorial version...
the social media version...
Filing in Africa...
Filing in Canada...
Mental Models in Action
Your doctor tells you that you have to undergo an operation. Would you do the operation?
Framing in Mental Models
Daniel Kahneman, 2011
80% chance of surviving.
Need to look at whether the problem is being framed as a problem, or as an opportunity and realize the inherent bias that is introduced by the ‘frame’.
20% chance of dying.
Steve is very shy and withdrawn, invariably helpful but with little interest in people or in the world of reality. A meek and tidy soul, he has a need for order and structure, and a passion for detail.
The story of Steve
Is Steve more likely to be a librarian or a farmer?
Fact - 20 male farmers for every 1 male librarian.
All customer files, receipts, accounting statements, are stored under the counter
All customer files, receipts, accounting statements, are stored in a fire/bomb/water proof safe, and two copies digitally backed up (one in a hidden location)
Categorization process
compare characteristics of our groups with other groups

Homogenization process
similar traits within a group; different traits across groups

Differentiation process
develop less favourable images of people in groups other than our own
Social Identity and Stereotyping
Pg. 57-58
Assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category

Occurs because:
Categorical thinking

Innate drive to understand and anticipate others’ behaviour

Enhances our self-concept
Stanford Prison Experiment
Study of the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or prison guard. The experiment was conducted at Stanford University from August 14 to August 20 of 1971 by a team of researchers led by psychology professor Philip Zimbardo.
24 random students
guards - mirrored sunglasses, baton, and guard uniform
prisoners - uncomfortable smocks and ankle chain
Scheduled for 14 days, ended after 6, 2 people quit
Internal Attribution
Perception that person’s behaviour is due to motivation/ability rather than situation or fate
Attribution Theory
External Attribution
Perception that behaviour is due to situation or fate rather than the person
How often did the person act this way in the past?
Frequently (high consistency)
How often did the person act this way in the past?
How often did the person act this way in the past?
Frequently (low distinctiveness)
Frequently (low consensus)
Frequently (low consistency)
Frequently (high distinctiveness)
Frequently (high consensus)
Fundamental Attribution Error
attributing own actions to external factors and other’s actions to internal factors

Self-Serving Bias
attributing our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors
Attribution Errors
Self-fulfilling prophecy cycle
Supervisor forms expectations about the emlpoyee
Supervisor's expectations affect his/her behaviour towards employee
Supervisor's behaviour affects employee's abilities and self-confidence
Employee's behaviour becomes consistent with supervisor's expectations
Occurs when our expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations.
Pg. 61-62
Pg. 58-60
Self-fulfilling prophecy effect is strongest:
When relationships form
When several people have similar expectations about the person
When the employee has low past achievement

Leaders should strive to develop and maintain positive, yet realistic, expectations of employee

Perceptual Errors
Halo effect - one trait forms a general impression
Primacy effect - first impressions
Recency effect - most recent information dominates perceptions
False-consensus effect - overestimate the extent to which others have beliefs and characteristics similar to our own
How to break the cycle
Career analyst Dan Pink examines the puzzle of motivation, starting with a fact that social scientists know but most managers don't: Traditional rewards aren't always as effective as we think. Listen for illuminating stories -- and maybe, a way forward.
Be aware - aware of perceptual biases

Improving self-awareness
Applying Johari Window

Meaningful interaction
Close and frequent interaction toward a shared goal
Equal status
Engaged in a meaningful task
How to break the cycle
Unknown to self
Open area
Blind area
Known to self
Known to others
Unknown to others
Unknown area
Hidden area
Make the 'box' bigger
Johari Window Model
Get people to understand you, values, and perceptions, and then ask for input, feedback, and opinion
A relatively permanent change in behaviour (or behaviour tendency) that occurs as a result of a person’s interaction with the environment

Explicit knowledge
Knowledge that is articulated through language, such as documents

Tacit knowledge
Knowledge acquired through observation and direct experience
Learning in Organizations
We “operate” on the environment
alter behaviour to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences
Learning is viewed as completely dependent on the environment
Human thoughts are viewed as unimportant
Behaviour Modification
Behavioural Modification School for Candidates
Training to be a candidate for political office in Canada?
Pg. 66-67
What happens before the behaviour
What the person says or does
What happens after the behaviour
Warning light flashes on operator's console
Operator switches off the machine's power source
Co-workers thank operator for stopping the machine
A-B-C's of Behaviour Modification
is removed
is introduced
Contingencies of Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Behavior modification is used in:
every day life to influence behaviour of others
company programs to reduce absenteeism, improve safety, etc.

Behavior modification problems include:
Reward inflation
Behaviorist philosophy vs. learning through mental processes
Behavior Modification in Practice
Behavioral modelling

Learning behaviour consequences

Social Learning Theory
Most tacit knowledge and skills are acquired through experience and observation

Experiential learning steps
Engagement with environment
Reflecting on experience
Learning Through Experience
Value the generation of new knowledge
Reward experimentation
Recognize mistakes as part of learning
Encourage employees to take reasonable risks
Developing a Learning Orientation
Knowledge acquisition
Extracting information and ideas from the external environment as well as through insight
Knowledge sharing
Distributing knowledge to others across the organization
Knowledge use
Applying knowledge in ways that adds value to the organization and its stakeholders
Organizational Learning
One example,
8am to 9am executive meetings.
No agenda.
Discuss anything on their minds.
Informal, “here-now” issues.
Cross-functional roles, multiple levels involved.
Insist on a post-implementation review (PIR) and 'what would you do it you had to do it all over again'
Creating learning organizations
Observing and modelling behaviour of others

Observing consequences that others experience

Reinforcing our own behaviour with consequences within our control
the concept of social learning
Managing Flow - A process theory of the Knowledge-Based Firm, Nonaka, 2008
Pg. 69
Pg. 68
Pg. 66-67
Failure today attributed to:
Aimed at C-level Execs
No tools or standards

To achieve success:
Climate for Risk-taking - explicit mistake taking
Concrete ways to share info (i.e. US ARMY's after action reviews)
Jeff Jarvis - 2008
The End
John Bosworth, Licensed counsellor
Example of Self-Serving Bias
Ensuring that even aliens need to know their competencies
Chapter 4 - how emotions and stress affect the workplace
- Psychological, behavioural, and physiological episodes experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness.
Most emotions occur without our awareness
Moods – lower intensity emotions without any specific target source
Emotions in the Workplace
Pg. 78
Attitudes vs Emotions
Judgments about anattitude object
Experiences usually related to an attitude object
Based mainly on rational logic
Based on innate and learned responses to environment
Usually stable for days or longer
Usually experienced for seconds or less
Purely cognitive approach

Beliefs: established perceptions of attitude object

Feelings: calculation of good or bad based on beliefs about the attitude object

Behavioral intentions: motivation to act in response to the attitude object

Problem: Ignores important role of emotions in shaping attitudes
Traditional model of Attitudes
Model of emotions, attitudes, & behaviour
Emotional episodes
Perceived environment
Behavioural intentions
Cognitive Process
Emotional Process
Feelings influenced by cumulative emotional episodes
We ‘listen in’ on our emotions
Conflict between cognitive and emotional processes
Emotions also directly affect behaviour
e.g. facial expression
Role of Emotions in Attitudes
Successful companies
The emotions-attitudes-behaviour model illustrates that attitudes are shaped by ongoing emotional experiences.
Thus, successful companies actively create more positive than negative emotional episodes.
What you believe to be true
How you feel about a topic
How motivated you are to act
A state of anxiety that occurs when an individual’s beliefs, feelings and behaviours are inconsistent with one another
Most common when behaviour is:
known to others
done voluntarily
can’t be undone
Cognitive Dissonance
Effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
Emotional labour higher when job requires:
frequent and long duration display of emotions
displaying a variety of emotions
displaying more intense emotions
Emotional Labour Defined
Displaying or hiding emotions varies across cultures
Minimal emotional expression and monotonic voice in Korea, Japan, Austria
Encourage emotional expression in Kuwait, Egypt, Spain, Russia
Emotional Labour Across Cultures
Difficult to display expected emotions accurately, and to hide true emotions
Emotional dissonance
Conflict between true and required emotions
Potentially stressful with surface acting
Less stress through deep acting
Emotional Labour Challenges
Ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others
Emotional Intelligence Defined
Model of Emotional Intelligence
Managing other people’s emotions
Relationship Management
perceiving and understanding the meaning of your own emotions
Managing our own emotions
Perceiving and understanding the meaning of others’ emotions
Social Awareness
Regulation of emotions
Recognition of emotions
(social competence)
(personal competence)
Relationship management
Social awareness
Emotional Intelligence Competencies
Emotional intelligence is a set of competencies (aptitudes, skills)
Can be learned, especially through coaching
EI increases with age -- maturity
Improving Emotional Intelligence
A person's evaluation of his or her job and work context
A collection of attitudes about specific facets of the job
Job Satisfaction
EVLN: Responses to Dissatisfaction
• Reducing work effort/quality
• Increasing absenteeism
• Patiently waiting for the situation
to improve
• Changing the situation
• Problem solving, complaining
• Leaving the situation
• Quitting, transferring
Happy workers are somewhat more productive workers, but:
General attitude is a poor predictor of specific behaviours
Job performance affects satisfaction only when rewarded
Effect on performance strongest in complex jobs because of greater employee influence on job performance (e.g. limited in assembly lines)
Job satisfaction affects mood, leading to positive behaviours toward customers
Less employee turnover, resulting in more consistent and familiar service
Job Satisfaction and Performance
Affective commitment
Emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in an organization
Continuance commitment
Belief that staying with the organization serves your personal interests
Organizational Commitment
Justice and support
Apply humanitarian values

Shared values
Values congruence

Employees trust org leaders

Organizational comprehension
Know firm’s past/present/future

Employee involvement
Building Organizational Commitment
An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s well-being
A complex emotion that prepares us for fight or flight
Eustress vs. distress
What is Stress?
General Adaptation Syndrome
Level of
Stage 3
Stage 2
Stage 1
Alarm Reaction
Consequences of Distress
Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headaches
Dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue
Work performance, accidents, absenteeism, aggression, poor decisions
Job Burnout Process
Stressors are the causes of stress -- any environmental condition that places a physical or emotional demand on the person.
Some common workplace stressors include:
Harassment an incivility
Work overload
Low task control
What are Stressors?
Repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions or gestures, that affect an employee's dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that result in a harmful work environment for the employee.
Psychological Harassment
Unwelcome conduct -- detrimental effect on work environment or job performance
Quid pro quo
employment or job performance is conditional on unwanted sexual relations
Hostile work environment
an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment
Sexual Harassment
Work Overload Stressor
Working more hours, more intensely than one can cope
Affected by globalization, consumerism, ideal worker norm
Task Control Stressor
Due to lack control over how and when tasks are performed
Stress increases with responsibility
Work Overload and Task Control Stressors
Different threshold levels of resistance to stressor
Use different stress coping strategies
Resilience to stress
Due to personality and coping strategies
Highly involved in work
Inner pressure to work
Low enjoyment of work
Individual Differences in Stress
© Photodisc. With permission.
Remove the stressor
Minimize/remove stressors
Withdraw from the stressor
Vacation, rest breaks
Change stress perceptions
Positive self-concept, humor
Control stress consequences
Healthy lifestyle, fitness, wellness
Receive social support
Managing Work-Related Stress
Human factors expert, Ash Donaldson, wants us to better understand why we believe what we do. In this talk, Ash explains how our minds build belief and then breaks it down, showing us how and why humans are fooled into believing that things like Power Bands, anti-aging treatments and supplements actually work. Along the way, he tells us how as a trainee pilot he managed to nearly get himself killed by allowing his beliefs to rule logic and provable fact.
Relationship Management
Self - Management
Self - Awareness
Managing other people’s emotions
Perceiving and understanding the meaning of others’ emotions
Managing our own emotions
Perceiving and understanding the meaning of your own emotions
Self - Awareness
Self - Management
Relationship Management
Daniel Goleman talks about how in order to be in a top profession a person needs, aside from a high IQ, the ability to be self-motivated and emotionally intelligent
Only 45 percent of Americans are satisfied with their jobs, according to a Conference Board survey provided to The Associated Press, the lowest level the research group has seen in surveys conducted over 22 years
Leaving the situation
Quitting, transferring
Changing the situation
Problem solving, complaining
Patiently waiting for the situation to improve
Reducing work effort/quality
Increasing absenteeism
Pg. 81-82
Pg. 83-84
Pg. 86
Pg. 87
Pg. 88-89
Pg. 90
Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headaches
Work performance, accidents, absenteeism, aggression, poor decisions
Dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue
Interpersonal & role-related stressors
Emotional Exhaustion
Reduced personal accomplishment
and behavioural
In this case, what might the stressor be?
Sheldon and sexual harassment
A short skit on sexual harassment in the office
Training video on key concepts of workplace bullying and patterns to be aware of
Workplace bullying
Good useful guide on how to deal with office bullies
Pg. 93
Pg. 94
The End
Doctor Michael Evans on Stress
90:10 The Single Most Important Thing You Can Do For Your Stress
Brene Brown on Empathy
What is the best way to ease someone's pain and suffering? In this beautifully animated RSA Short, Dr Brené Brown reminds us that we can only create a genuine empathic connection if we are brave enough to really get in touch with our own fragilities.
Kelly McGonigal
How to make stress your friend

Geert Hofstede studied people in various countries around the world to develop a model/theory on the different dimensions of culture. Here we discuss five of the main culture dimensions. Power Distance, Masculinity vs Femininity, Individualistic vs collectivist, Uncertainty Avoidance and Time Orientation.
Hofstede's Model on Cultural Dimensions
Full transcript