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The Ten Stages of Genocide
Transcript of The Ten Stages of Genocide
Social groups are classified as "us" and "them"
Prevention Measures: prohibiting such symbols by law
One group denies the humanity of the other group.
•Use of hate propaganda in printed and mass media (TV, radio, internet)
Tutsis were referred to as "cockroaches"
Condemn use of hate speech and make it culturally unacceptable
Every genocide is organized. Usually by the state, using trained and armed militias to hide state responsibility.
Rwanda witnessed the organization of extremist Hutu militias:
Outlaw membership in hate groups
Freeze finances and deny visas of group members
Impose arms embargoes
Prosecute arms suppliers in national courts
Genocide Watch exists to predict, prevent, stop, and punish genocide and other forms of mass murder. We seek to raise awareness and influence public policy concerning potential and actual genocide. Our purpose is to build an international movement to prevent and stop genocide.
10 Stages of Genocide
Organized genocidal massacres
Cooperation between state army and militias
Not seen by killers as murder
Victims are filthy "enemies."
Society needs "cleansing"
that genocide took place
refuse to allow accountability
blame "natural causes"
call it mutual civil war
lie to create doubt until it's over
appeal to national interests of potential interveners
"us" vs. "them"
Rwanda: Hutus vs. Tutsis
Nazi Germany: Germans vs. Jews
Darfur: Arabs vs. Blacks (slaves)
ISIS: true Muslims vs. Infidels
Eliminate race, religion, and ethnicity on ID cards.
Refuse to use hate symbols (Bulgaria, Denmark).
Outlaw public display of hate symbols (swastikas)
2002: Darfur population: six million, 80% black African. 2016: three million displaced. 500,000 people dead.
2008: UN estimated 300,000 people dead
3,800 black African villages were burnt to the ground. Arab villages were left alone.
In 2003, two rebel groups attacked the Al-Fashir airport in Darfur and damaged military planes.
Sudan government bombers and armed Arab militia,
attacked civilian population, including:
In 2009, the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Sudan’s President, Omar al-Bashir, for genocide and crimes against humanity in Darfur.
Despite indictment, Bashir travels in Africa with impunity. The UN Security Council won't demand his arrest.
Genocide is always accompanied by war crimes and crimes against humanity: mass rape, torture and destruction of cultural sites
A dominant group uses law, custom and political power to deny the rights of other groups.
How to stop Genocide:
Justice for perpetrators
Stable, honest governments
Protection of minorities
Coptic Christians executed by ISIS in Libya, 2015
2016: Sudan expert Reeves estimates 500 000 dead
Victims identified and rounded up
Symbols mark houses and individuals
Victims sent to ghettos, concentration camps, deserts, gulags
Nazi 1935 Nuremberg Laws
U.S. Jim Crow Segregation Laws
South Africa Apartheid Laws
Myanmar Laws denying Rohingya
Outlaw discrimination based on race, religion, ethnicity, nationality, etc.
Search for common ground (church, sports, music, schools)
Promote transcendent identities: nationality, humanity
Leaders plan the "final solution."
Propaganda prepares the people to kill.
Darfur displaced persons camp
Omar al-Bashir and South African President Jacob Zuma, June, 2015
diplomacy using regional allies
targeted sanctions on genocide leaders
political asylum for victims
prepare relief for refugees
arms assistance for victims' self defense
regional military intervention
Rapid armed international intervention
UN Security Council authorized, or
UN General Assembly authorized, or
Regional organization sponsored, or
Support for local resistance.
Three current genocides:
Syria by Assad
ISIS in Syria and Iraq
Jordanian pilot burned to death by ISIS, 2015
The Darfur, Syrian and ISIS genocides continue today.
Extremists call moderates
in their own group traitors
and arrest, imprison,
or kill them.
Support anti-genocidal groups
Physically protect moderate leaders.
Protest arrests of moderates and demand release.
Prosecute hate groups for hate speech or incitement.
Take down their websites, facebook, twitter accounts.
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, in Arusha, Tanzania
Prevention of Denial: Trials of perpetrators
by international, hybrid, national or local courts
Syria under Assad since 2011:
300,000 killed by bombing, starvation, torture.
3 million people displaced - causing the worst refugee crisis since World War II.
Much of Syria destroyed.
Outlaw discrimination by race, religion, ethnicity, or nationality, etc.
Outlaw discrimination by race,
religion, ethnicity, or nationality, etc.
Use journalistic, NGO and government intelligence networks.
Publicly expose genocidal plans.
Support political opponents of plans.
Freeze finances and deny visas to planners.
Prevention: Political Will
The world needs an international mass movement to end genocide.
The Alliance Against Genocide was founded in 1999.
Organize civil society and human rights groups.
Mobilize religious leaders of churches, mosques, synagogues, and temples.
Put genocide education in curricula of every secondary school and university.
Hold political leaders accountable. If they fail to act to stop genocide, vote them out of office.
Classifications are symbolized.
Groups are given names
and other symbols.
Genocide continues due to:
Lack of authoritative international
institutions to predict it
Lack of ready rapid response forces to stop it
UNAMIR peacekeeper in Rwanda, April 1994
Genocide continues due to:
Lack of political will to peacefully prevent it
and to forcefully intervene to stop it
UN Security Council votes to withdraw
UNAMIR troops from Rwanda, April 1994
The result has been genocide again and again.
Memorial to 800,000 Rwandans murdered, April - July, 1994
1. Early Warning
2. Rapid Response
3. Courts of Accountability
The Ten Stages of Genocide