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How Networks Communicate

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sohail azam

on 17 May 2014

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Transcript of How Networks Communicate

network structure.
Token Ring - Token ring local area network (LAN) technology is a protocol which resides at the data link layer (DLL) of the OSI model. It used a special three-byte frame called a token that travels around the ring. Token-possession grants the possessor permission to transmit on the medium. Token ring frames travel completely around the loop.

Peer to peer - A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a type of reorganised and distributed network architecture in which individual nodes in the network (called "peers") act as both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the centralized client–server model where client nodes request access to resources provided by central servers.

Client server networks - The client–server model of computing is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.Often clients and servers communicate over a computer network on separate hardware, but both client and server may reside in the same system. A server host runs one or more server programs which share their resources with clients.
What is a network topology?
In communication networks, a topology is usually a simplified description of the arrangement of a network, including its nodes and connecting lines.
There are two ways of defining network topologies the physical topology and the logical (or signal) topology.
Physical Network topologies
Logical Network topologies
Logical (or signal) topology refers to the nature of the paths the signals follow from node to node. In many instances, the logical topology is the same as the physical topology but it's not always the case. For example, some networks are physically laid out in a star configuration, but they operate logically as bus or ring networks.
Frame Relay - Frame relay is a standardized wide area network technology that specifies the physical and logical link layers of digital telecommunications channels using a packet switching methodology. Originally designed for transport across Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) infrastructure, it may be used today in the context of many other network interfaces.

MPLS - Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table. The labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints. MPLS can summarize packets of various network protocols. MPLS supports a range of access technologies, including T1/E1, ATM, Frame Relay, and DSL.

PAN - Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs).

How Networks Communicate
By Mohamed, Kija & Sohail

LAN - A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media

Ethernet - Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). Ethernet was commercially introduced in 1980 and standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3. An Ethernet LAN typically uses coaxial cable or special grades of twisted pair wires. Ethernet is also used in wireless LANs. Nowadays Ethernet provide transmission speeds up to 100 Gbps.

Wireless - A wireless network is any type of computer network that uses wireless data connections for connecting network nodes.
Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented and administered using radio communication. This implementation takes place at the physical level (layer) of the OSI model network structure.

Physical Network topologies types are:
Linear bus
Tree / expanded star
Ring / token ring

The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Physical topology should not be confused with logical topology which is the method used to pass information between workstations. (more about logical topologies later)
Range of Topologies
In this section I am going to be talking about what topologies are, different types of topologies, range of topologies and Logical and physical topologies.
Linear bus
A linear bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at each end.

- Easy to connect
- Less cables

- Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
- Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
- Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.
- Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building.
Mesh network
The mesh network topology employs either of two schemes, called full mesh and partial mesh. In the full mesh topology, each workstation is connected directly to each of the others. In the partial mesh topology, some workstations are connected to all the others, and some are connected only to those other nodes with which they exchange the most data.
Tree (or expanded star)
Ring / Token ring
In the ring network topology, the workstations are connected in a closed loop configuration. Adjacent pairs of workstations are directly connected. Other pairs of workstations are indirectly connected, the data passing through one or more intermediate nodes.

Token ring
If a Token Ring protocol is used in a star or ring topology, the signal travels in only one direction, carried by a so-called token from node to node.

Nodes like file server, workstations, and peripherals are connected to the linear cable.
• No computer can monopolize the network
• The fair sharing of the network allows the net to degrade gracefully as more user are added.

• Failure of one computer can affect the total network
• Difficult to troubleshoot
• Adding or removing Computers disrupts the network
• Fault tolerance
• Guaranteed communication channel capacity
• Easy to troubleshoot

• Difficulty of installation and reconfiguration
• Cost of maintaining redundant link

OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnect and is a standard which the majority of networks today are based on. The core of this standard is called the OSI Reference Model, which is a set of seven layers that show the stages that the data must go through in order to travel from the device to the network.

OSI was developed in 1984 by an organisation called the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) which is a global federation of standards representing around 130 countries.

Topologies remain an important part of network design theory. E.g you can probably build a home or small business computer network without understanding the difference between a bus design and a star design, but becoming familiar with the standard topologies gives you a better understanding of important networking concepts like hubs, broadcasts, and routes.
How Protocols Relate to the Function of a Network
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

DHCP allows a computer to join an IP-based network without having a pre-configured IP address. DHCP is a protocol that assigns unique IP addresses to devices, then releases and renews these addresses as devices leave and re-join the network.
Network Software
A network operating system (NOS) is a computer operating system that is designed to support workstation, personal computer, and older terminal that are connected on a local area network (LAN).

Artisoft's LANtastic, Banyan VINES, Novell's NetWare, and Microsoft's LAN Manager are examples of network operating systems.
Network Model/OSI Model
DNS (Domain Name System)
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a system used to convert a computer's host name into an IP address on the Internet. For example, if a computer needs to communicate with the web server example.

Your computer needs the IP address of the web server example.net. It is the job of the DNS to convert the host name to the IP address of the web server. DNS is defined in RFC 1034 and RFC 1035 and use the UDP Port 53 or TCP Port 53.
Network Services
In this section I am going to be talking about Network Services. I will be going into detail what ISDN, ATM and Broadband ADSL.

Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch, or concentrator before continuing to its destination. The hub, switch, or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow. This configuration is common with twisted pair cable; however, it can also be used with coaxial cable or fiber optic cable.
Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network, and enable schools to configure a network to meet their needs.

- Easy to install and wire.
- No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
- Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

- Requires more cable length than a linear topology.
- If the hub, switch, or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled.
- More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the hubs, etc.

Advantages and Disadvantages
A star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub, switch, or concentrator.
- Point-to-point wiring for individual segments.
- Supported by several hardware and software venders.

- Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used.
- If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.
- More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.

CSMA - Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) is a Media Access Control (MAC) protocol. When transmitting on a medium that is shared by many transmitters, the transmitter first checks to see that nothing else is already transmitting. Examples of shared transmission medium include an electrical bus, or part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Network Connection Software
Network connection software is software that checks for connectivity in a network. It monitors bandwidth and ensures that the user is always online. Network connection software is software that is used by network administrators to check the network connectivity in an area.

There is a variety of network software that is used for different networks; such as ConfigFree that is used as an application for wired and wireless communication in mobile computers. Nsauditor which is used as a Network Security Auditor, NetLimiter and the Proxifier.

The Seven Layers
The seven layers of the OSI model are separated into two sets, the Application Set and the Transport Set. The seven layers are:

• Application
• Presentation
• Session

• Transport
• Network
• Data
• Physical

Application Set
Transport Set
What is ISDN?
ISDN is Integrated Services Digital Network

ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, which also provides access to packet switched networks, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in potentially better voice quality than an analog phone can provide.

ATM Stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Most people know of ATMs as automated teller machines

How Do ATMs Work?
An ATM is simply a data terminal with two input and four output devices. Like any other data terminal, the ATM has to connect to, and communicate through, a host processor. The host processor is analogous to an Internet service provider (ISP) in that it is the gateway through which all the various ATM networks become available to the cardholder (the person wanting the cash).

Basically Asynchronous Transfer Mode is a networking technology that transfers data in packets or cells of a fixed size.
Broadband ADSL
ADSL stands for asymmetric digital subscriber line.
ADSL is a type of DSL broadband communications technology used for connecting to the Internet.
ADSL requires a special ADSL modem and subscribers must be in close geographical locations to the provider's central office to receive ADSL service. Typically this distance is within a radius of 2 to 2.5 miles.

TCP/IP is the single most important computer networking technology. The Internet and most home networks support TCP/IP as the language all computers understand and use to find and connect with each other.

People started to become familiar with TCP/IP, demanding it to be used in newer systems. This caused manufacturers to start to include TCP/IP in their systems as it was rising in demand, TCP/IP then became the most popular and preferred method of network communication today.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet communication protocol used to send and relay an email message between email servers. It is not used to retrieve email messages from a server. Instead either IMAP or POP is used to retrieve email messages.
ISDN enables wide-bandwidth digital transmission over the public telephone network, which means more data can be sent at one time. A typical ISDN connection can support transfer rates of 64K or 128K of data per second. While these speeds are faster than what you can get with a dial-up modem, the newer DSL technology can support even faster transfer rates and is less costly to set up and maintain.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
FTP, also known as File Transfer Protocol, is a protocol for the rapid, simple transmission of files across a network supporting the TCP/IP protocol. This network is generally the Internet, or a local network.

FTP is a way of accessing files on another computer. FTP uses the Client-Server architecture, meaning that there is a server that holds the files, and does the authentication, and a client, or the end-user, who is accessing the files.

Client/server server-based network:
• simple protocol
• efficient under low load
• Fast and reliable
• Easy to back up data

• failure-prone (if the server goes down, the service stops)
• inefficient under high load (server is overloaded, clients are underutilized)
• Expensive
• May require a technician to maintain the network as specialist knowledge will be needed

Client Network Advantages and Disadvantages

• efficient under high load
• network traffic distributed evenly across network
• Cheap to run
• Connects to many peers to have a secure network

• complex protocol
• resilient (if one peer goes down, others provide service)
• inefficient under light load (indexing overhead exceeds data)
• network path unpredictable and insecure, data carriers may not be trustworthy
• Slow network
Peer to Peer network advantages and disadvantages
The End
Accessing Methods
Token passing - In telecommunication, token passing is a channel access method where a signal called a token is passed between nodes that authorizes the node to communicate. The most well-known examples are token ring and ARCNET.
Welcome to our Prezi. In this Prezi we will be explaining how networks work and communicate and the different types of networks and their protocols.
Thank You for Viewing!
A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable
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