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Opiods

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Brandon Smith

on 12 April 2016

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Transcript of Opiods

Class of Drug
Opioids are a controlled prescription pharmaceutical drug or Schedule: I, that come in three different pharmacological properties.
Routes of Administration
What is an Opioid
Definition:
a drug derived from opium (e.g. morphine and codeine) or a synthetic drug with opium-like effect (e.g. oxycodone).

Forms Of Opioids
Street Names
Opioids
History of Opioids
Image of a morphine molecule
http://opioids.com/timeline/
1. Agonist:

a substance
that initiates a
physiological response
when combined with a
receptor.

2. Agonist/Antagonist (Partial):

a substance which exhibits some properties of an agonist (a substance that fully activates the neuronal receptor that it attaches to) and some properties of an antagonist (a substance that attaches to a receptor but does not activate it or if it displaces an agonist at that receptor it seemingly deactivates it thereby reversing the effect of the agonist).
3. Antagonist:

a substance that blocks
the physiological response
to a receptor.
Naturally occurring opioids
• Morphine
• Codeine

Semi-Synthetic
• Heroin
• Oxycodone
• Hydromorphone
• Hydrocodone

Synthetic opioids
• Methadone
• Fentanyl
• Naltrexone

Oxycontin - Oxy, Hillbilly heroin, kickers, Oxycottons, killers, OC

Percocet/Percodan - Percs, percodoms

Fentanyl - Apache, Duragesic, Sublimaze, “dance fever,” Actiq, TNT,
China White, China Girl, Tango and Cash, jackpot, friend, goodfella

Morphine - Roxanol, Miss Emma, M, “white stuff,” monkey, Duramorph,

Methadone - Amidone, fizzies, chocolate chip cookies (with MDMA)

Oral (Percocet), Intramuscular or Intravenous (heroin), inhalation both snorting when crushed up into powder form or smoked when heated to a high enough temperature (Oxycodone), transdermal (Fentanyl patch), sublingual (Suboxone), subcutaneous, (nalbuphine).
Withdraw Symptoms
Low energy, irritability,
anxiety, agitation,
insomnia,runny nose,
teary eyes,shakes,
hot and cold sweats,
goose bumps, yawning,
muscle aches and pains,
abdominal cramping, nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea.
(from experience AWFUL)
Social Attitudes to the Substance and Associated Behavior(s)
Myths About Opioids
Suboxone is an example of an Agonist/Antagonist (partial)
Heroin is an exmaple of an Agonist
Naltrexone is an example of an Antagonist
Opioid abusers will lose friends, family and loved ones because of their addiction.

They isolate themselves or will seek out other users where they feel safe have ready access to their opioid of choice.

Slightly more than 3 million Canadians (13 %) use prescription pain pills (opiate narcotics such as codeine, morphine and Demerol)
Regionally, the highest use was in BC (21%) and lowest in Quebec (7%)
More women (14 %) than men (12%) use pills.
Use is highest in people 18-19 (15.5%) and lowest between ages 55-64 (11%)
Use is highest among those with the lowest income.

http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/362/ille/rep/rep-nov98-e.htm#4. The Law Regarding Licit and Illicit Drugs in CanadaFederal Drug Law
There are many people who use opioids to relieve pain by taking them as per the prescribed dose of medication. A pain killer such as Percocet is used to relive pain from a broken foot to kidney stones. This would be the legal and safe way to consume the drug. The real issue is those that get addicted from their prescription abuse or seek illegal street pain killers. Illicit drug use contributes to crime and law enforcement costs in a number of ways. These include the costs of enforcing the law; dependent use of "hard" drugs such as heroin are implicated in property crime and drug use and are associated with crimes of violence such as those committed over drug territory.
Legal/Illegal
Issues
The most important federal statute dealing with illicit drugs is the Controlled Drugs
and Substances Act (CDSA), which became law in May of 1997. There are six common offences under it: possession, trafficking,importing or exporting and "prescription shopping" (obtaining multiple prescriptions by visiting several doctors).
If offenders are convicted of possession or prescription shopping; they are likely to receive a maximum penalty of six months in imprisonment and a $1 000 fine for a first offence, and 12 months’ imprisonment and $2,000 fine for subsequent offences.

If the Crown chooses indictment, the maximum penalty for possession is seven years’ imprisonment (Oxycodone and Percocet are in Schedule I). The CDSA also covers offences to do with property and proceeds of drug offences (one component of which is "money laundering").

Punishments
BPS PLUS MODEL
BIOPHYSICAL

Opioid abuse intravenously will
lead to the eventual collapse
an addicts’ veins and users start to develop abscesses. Many heroin users suffer from lung problems, in most cases, heroin users have diminished lung capacity because the drug depresses the body so much and restricts breathing and abusers can often develop pneumonia. A key sign
that someone is on a opioid is the "nod"

PSYCHOLOGICAL

Opioid use affects the brain and its chemical makeup. It causes addicts to primarily focus on finding their next fix (DEPENDENCE) as opposed to other needs, even those as simple as bathing and eating. The opioid is ingested and metabolizes as a lipid based chemical which passes through the BBB (blood brain barrier) to create a euphoric effect in the pleasure centre of the brain.

SOCIAL

Opioid abusers will lose friends, family
and loved ones because of their addiction.
They isolate themselves or will seek out
other users where they feel safe and have
ready access to their opioid of choice. Socially, prescription opioid use is often
seen as acceptable as many Doctors and Pharmaceutical companies advertise and
promote pain killers as it creates large
revenue streams.
CULTURAL

In some cultures, opiates are used in medicine, like in North America and most of Europe and Asia to treat pain. Some cultures around the world use opium in rituals which could also fall into the spirituality aspect of the BPS plus model.

SPIRITUAL

I believe that opioids dissolve people from being spiritual. As I was once an opiate addict I felt like I had no connection with spirituality. In the twelve step approach to recovery it is often said that one is spiritually bankrupt when they sober up or get clean and must gain a connection to a higher power.

This Presentation is
Brought to you
by Brandon Smith

It is believed that opium first originated from a Middle Eastern country in Mesopotamia which is hot and dry (perfect for the growth of a poppy plant (papaver somniferum) over 5000 years ago. It was discovered that during a ten-day period of time during of a poppies year long life span there was a window of opportunity to collect a substance that when ingested had pain relief effects. In 1500 BC Egyptian Ebers Papyrus (medical herbal knowledge) was said to use opium to prevent children from crying. Opium was also significant in Greek medicine. One Greek physician believed that opium had the potential to be a cure for all ailments. He also however, felt that caution was needed as he must have seen its negative effects as well. It was not until the 10th century that two Arabic physicians discovered what many consider the first evidence that opium was additive.
THE END
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