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Transcript of Environmental Movement
In order to produce high yields, many farmers will use large amounts of pesticides in response to pests
Most farmers aren't educated on pesticide practices, and so more pesticides are used than is called for.
Farmers believe that if they use more pesticides, they will make more money Environment
More pesticide-resistant populations of bugs
Leaking of pesticides into water sources
People: Hand-mixing pesticides
Poor or nonexistent safety equipment
Inadequate storage leads to leakage
Excessive use heightens concentration in food and consequently in people Target for REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) funds. $ 1 billion from Norway.
Aimed at compensating foregone profits of Oil Palm companies.
For every dollar of net profit made by palm oil companies, about three dollars are contributed to national income through direct and indirect spending. (Lestari 2008; Lonsom 2008; SMART 2008). 'Give the Orang-utans a Break' campaign successful. Nestlé finally announced a break from unsustainable sources of Palm Oil.
KFC UK/Ireland drops rainforest fiber from packaging. Overview What is happening
Who is this affecting and how?
What is being done Educational Programs DOA and MoAC launching mitigation campaigns
Encourage crop diversification, organic farming, integrated pest management
Farmer's groups Vietnam Economic Growth Externalities Myanmar/Burma Cons Myanmar's per capita GDP in 2010: $700 USD
Population located in rural areas: 62%
Percent of Labor force in agriculture: 64%
In industry: 10%
Percent of energy expenditure in household: 76%
In industry: 8.2% Pros Deforestation Myanmar is one of the 8 most biologically diverse regions in the world.
Forested land: 48.32%
Percent of SEA's forest: 40%
Species of birds: 1027
Unique Eco-regions: 9
Last golden teak forest Pollution Environmental Problems Philippines Deforestation History Rising economic power Relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation Estimated yearly depletion: 1,113 sq km
Sustainable yield: 3,116 sq km
Demand: 4,229 sq km
Percent of Myanmar's energy produced by fuelwood: 62%
Myanmar's timber exports: Reform aimed at development of multi-sector economy through market forces Abandonment of centralized, state-controlled economy New economic priorities established Still some degree of economic planning by state $124 billion GDP Despite an 18% increase in population size, GDP per capita quadrupled in 10 years Growth rate 3x that of the United States Natural resource exploitation and polluting industries developed to boost the economy Illegal Animal Trade The Problem of Deforestation Indonesia - responsible for almost 1/3 of global carbon emission.
Change in land use and illegal logging: chief culprits.
United Nations Environmental Program states most forests of Indonesia may be destroyed by 2022 at the current rate of deforestation.
Danger Highly profitable. Highly in demand worldwide.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased by 18% during 2003–05.
Problem: 70% plantations have established on former forest covers.
Sources: legal and illegal.
In Sumatra & Borneo, plantation threatens elephants, tigers, rhinos, as well as orangutans. Government Efforts Recent History Under various forms of military rule since 1962
Smatterings of insurrection throughout
8-8-88: large scale revolution.
China and US stationed troops, heightening tensions.
9-18-88: Military defeats revolution in coup, solidifying power for the junta.
Western sanctions and ineffective governance have stunted national development. More Recent History Military Junta dissolved March 30, 2011
Multiple visits made by United States Secretary of State, Hilary Clinton, in 2011-2012
President Barack Obama visited 2012 •#1 priority for the Ministry of Forestry’s National Planning Programme (2005-2009)
•Two year Moratorium
•Efforts in suppression and investigation of illegal logging stepped up (2009)
•Tension at grassroots level: between central and local governments/ between state and the local communities Farmers can make much more money trafficking animals that in agriculture
Many border regions, not controlled by the Burmese government are rife with animal trade
Tigers remaining in Myanmar: 85
Number of tiger, lion, and leopard pieces seen being sold 2001-2010: ~400 Exacerbated by poverty
Unabated by by governmental policy Transition from communist rule NOT about Vietnam War Doi Moi reforms in 1986 onwards Slow, step by step transfer of power from government to free-market system Successful, peaceful, prosperous transition! Role of NGOs Outsourced from developed countries Reliance on a free-market system brings more than just growth Market failures become system failures Externality: a consequence of commercial activity that is not included in the price of the good or service Price levels determine supply and demand. Usually works. Institutional Methods of
Environmental Protection Declined from 44 percent of the country in 1943 to less than 20 percent today. Bees! Positive: Beekeeper keeps bees, which pollinate local crops Pros:
NGOs have greater access to problem areas
Economic development has the potential to modernize the life of the rural family but some externalities are bad... environmental damage Cons:
Corporations have greater access to exploitable natural resources Short-term economic benefit as fiber is sold for profit, fueling construction and exports Incalculable long-term harm from biodiversity loss People highly politically active
"Greenpeace aims to protect the region from further ecological ruin and to serve as a beacon of awareness and action"
Source of legitimacy
Ability to organize local people, network
Provide financial resources
Effort to place power into the hands of the people in the hopes that locals have more environmentally- friendly motivations
Unique growth of NGOs "The farmer frequently suffered from hand tremor, twitching eyelids, staggering, pallor, excess sweating, salivation, headache, blurred vision, insomnia, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and breathing difficulty” (Gupta 153)
Lymphoma is linked to exposure to pesticides
DDT is still present in maternal sera in mother-infant pairs
Tests of school-aged children results in finding high concentrations of pesticides in urine samples, particularly among those students with farming parents (Barr 289).
Government, corporate, and individual treatment of the environment
Non-violent direct action
Peaceful demonstrations, picketing, silent protests, sit-downs, etc.
Illegal activity tolerated by Filipino police
Global campaign (42 countries) Greenpeace Structure of industry changing as Vietnam develops, new pollutants Disposal systems rely on natural decomposition, which does not survive new contaminants Governmental Pesticide use is increasing exponentially National Commission for Environmental Affairs (UCEA) established in 1990
Subcommission of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs until 2005
Budget of $12,000
Protected Area system: 36 areas established or planned Established for private interests in the guise of an NGO
Disparages the image of genuine NGOs
Contract Reforestation Program-unmonitored process allowed these mutant NGOs to transfer funds to local elites Mutant NGOs Contracted by governments
co-opted by state
Ambiguity between roles of government and roles of NGOs Government Problems Mutant NGOs
Working with the government Case- Mt. Apo Stronger NGO roles in CBRM have generally resulted in better environmental protection" (Austin & Eder, 363)
Flexibility- Hybrid NGOs improved living conditions Sense of trust
Local residents believed NGOs are primarily responsible for environmental protection
"Healthy relationships between communities and individuals from Palawan's NGOs will likely continue for years to come" (369) Case- Palawan Island Conclusions The rapid economic growth in SEA countries often sacrifices the environment Greenpeace Successes Environmental health vs. Economic growth FALSE choice Include costs to environment in markets, to account for long-term health of economy Mt. Apo Volcano -PNOC wanted to develop
Created transnational alliance and ongoing lobby effort
NGO pressure on World Bank made them reject PNOC due to a poor EIA NGOs Over 40 NGOs working within Myanmar
Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA)
Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network (TRAFFIC)
Friends of Wilderness Flexibility
Networking Conclusion Need to monitor more closely to prevent Mutant NGOs.
Better define responsibilities of government, and keep NGOs separate, so
Involve the communities more in the selection and contracting process, so..
NGOs can continue to use their networking and flexibility that makes them valuable to fight environmental issues. In the Free Market Need healthy environment for sustainable, long-term prosperity