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Morocco, the Land of the Setting Sun..

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ab Lemli

on 4 February 2016

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Transcript of Morocco, the Land of the Setting Sun..

Morocco, the Land of the Setting Sun..
2. Geography:
Location
Content
1. Introduction:
Capital:
Rabat
Type of State:
Constitutional Monarchy Kingdom with an elected parliament.
Current Political Leaders:
King: MOHAMED VI (since July 1999) - hereditary
Prime Minister: Abdelilah BENKIRANE - Justice and Development Party (since 29 November 2011)
Next Election Dates :
Chamber of Representatives: in 2016

1. Introduction
2. Geography
Location
Climate & Vegetation
Natural Resources
3. Demography
4. History
Prehistoric Era
Muslim Era
Colonization and independence Era
Contemporary Era
5. Economic Systems
6. Political Systems
7. Culture
Religion, Customs & Traditions
Food, Language, etc.
8. Facts about Africa

Rabat
-Moroccan country is located in North West of the African continent.
-It’s limited by Atlantic and Mediterranean sea, Algeria and Mauritania.
-Morocco, about one-tenth larger than California, lies across the Strait of Gibraltar on the Mediterranean and looks out on the Atlantic from the northwest shoulder of Africa. Algeria is to the east and Mauritania to the south.
-On the Atlantic coast there is a fertile plain.
-The Mediterranean coast is mountainous.
-The Atlas Mountains, running northeastward from the south to the Algerian frontier, average 3,353 m in elevation.
- The Moroccan Sahara desert is in the south, behind the Atlas Mountains.
-2018 km of terrestrial borders (Algeria, Mauritania)
-3446 km of coast (Atlantic and Mediterranean)

Climate & Vegetation
The country of Morocco has a huge variety not just in the landscape but eventually its climate and even its vegetation. The climate in the north is Mediterranean, Atlantic to the west and dry Saharian to the south. The winters are nice and cold though a bit humid, while the summers are hot and arid.
The temperatures are mild in the coastal area and more extreme in the interior of the country.

Cedar forests cover some 320,000 acres on the slopes of the Middle Atlas, the High Atlas, and the Rif mountains.
Cork oak forest of Ma'amora in north-western Morocco is the largest cork oak forest in the world.
Eucalyptus forests cover some 830,000 hectares. Eucalyptus represents a valuable commodity in Morocco.
Olive tree, Morocco became one of the world's largest olive exporters
Argan forest, Argan grows to 8–10 m high and lives up to 200 years. It grows in semi desert Sous valley of southwestern Morocco. The Argan forest covers about 950,000 ha in Southern Morocco, mostly between the High Atlas and the Anti-Atlas Mountains, in a region bordering the Sahara desert. The Argan fruit which is is 2–4 cm long and contains small oil-rich seeds. Argan oil originally consumed by berbers only is now sold in Morocco as a luxury item. The product is of increasing interest to cosmetics companies all over the world.
Date palm trees, Dates are an important traditional crop in Morocco. Because of its arid deserts, Morocco is the perfect place for cultivating dates and today boasts over 100 different varieties of dates with 45 of those in the south of Morocco alone. Of the many different varieties of dates the most popular are the Medjool.
Dates are also mentioned more than 50 times in the Bible and 20 times in the Qur'an. In Islamic culture, dates and milk are traditionally the first foods consumed for Iftar after the sun has set during Ramadan

Other less known trees can be found in large numbers: mimosa around Tangier, juniper in the mountainous regions, thuja of Barbary or arar used by cabinetmakers at Essaouira, the gum acacia tree which grows in the semi-arid regions, jujube , dwarf palm tree (doum), sycamore found in the Tafilalt,. Prickly pears can be found over almost all the country, but euphorbia is found only in the Ifni.
Agriculture in Morocco It employs about 40% of the nation's workforce. Moroccan agricultural production consists of orange, tomatoes, potatoes, olives, and olive oil. High quality agricultural products are usually exported to Europe. Morocco produces enough food for domestic consumption except for grains, sugar, coffee and tea. More than 40% of Morocco's consumption of grains and flour is imported from the United States and France.

Natural Resources
Phosphates
Phosphate reserves in Morocco are 110 billion t accounting for 75% of the world’s reserves. Morocco is the world’s biggest phosphate producer
Fish
Fishing in Morocco is based on nearly 65 species of fish, cephalopods and crustaceans. The most frequently caught fish in the Region are the predominantly pelagic sardinella and horse mackerel (Trachurus) species. Morocco has the most extensive coastline of all coastal countries with a length of 1,750 kilometres and is known for having the richest fish territory in the Atlantic Ocean. Moroccan coasts are fringed in the North by the Mediterranean Sea and the West by the Atlantic Ocean.
Salt
Moroccan Atlantic has raw, coarse, wild salt crystals that come from the traditional salt fields along Morocco’s coastline. They’re inconsistent in size, rubble of micro-fine bits to huge chunks, which sometimes require a mortar and pestle. They make a fine salt for cooking

Other Mineral resources : Iron - Lead – Manganese – Zinc – Gold – Copper – Cobalt- Nickel – Antimony - Tungsten Molybdenum - Tin – Uranium - Silver.
Wild animals:
Morocco’s native mammal species include foxes, jackals, genets, hyenas, leopards, panthers, gazelles and the famous Barbary ape. The country’s national parks are National Park of Ifrane, National Park of Tazekka, National Park of Souss Massa, National Park of Al Hoceima, National Park of Toubkal and National Park of Talassemtane.
Rivers:
Morocco has the most extensive river system in North Africa.
The principal rivers flowing south or westward into the Atlantic Ocean are the Rebia (555 kilometers long), Sebou (Sebu; 500 kilometers), Bouregreg (250 kilometers), Tensift (270 kilometers long), and Drâa (1,200 kilometers). The Drâa is Morocco's longest river, but it is seasonal. It marks part of the border with Algeria and is sometimes dry, since it runs through the desert.
The Ziz and Rheris both flow south out of the Atlas Mountains into the heart of the Sahara. The Moulouya (Muluya) flows 560 kilometers northeast from the Atlas to the Mediterranean, making it the longest river in the country that consistently reaches the sea

3. Demography
 The current population of Morocco is 34,632,396 as of Saturday, January 30, 2016, based on the latest United Nations estimates.
 Morocco population is equivalent to 0.47% of the total world population.
 Morocco ranks number 39 in the list of countries by population.
 The population density in Morocco is 78 per Km2 (202 people per mi2).
 The total land area is 446,373 Km2 (172,345 sq. miles)
 59.5 % of the population is urban (20,868,301 people in 2016)
 The median age in Morocco is 28.3 years.
 47% < 25 ans
 41,7% rural population
 16 624 376 males as of 31 December 2015
 17 307 143 females as of 31 December 2015

Morocco age structure

As of the beginning of 2016 according to our estimations Morocco had the following population age distribution:


- percentage of population under 15: 27.8 %
- percentage of population between 15 and 64 years old: 66.1 %
- percentage of population 65+ : 6.1 %

Life expectancy:
Male life expectancy at birth is 72.8 years.
Female life expectancy at birth is 79.1 years.

Education System
Morocco’s education system consists of:
• 6 years of primary,
• 3 years of intermediate school,
• 3 years of upper secondary.

4 History:
Main dates:
Prehistoric Era
3000-800 BC Bronze Age. Oukaïmeden
Towards 460 BC Hanno reconnoitres the West African coasts and founds several trading posts in Morocco.
25 BC-23 AD Reign of Juba II. Volubilis
40 AD Ptolemy is assassinated. Mauritania becomes Sala Colonia a Roman province. Banasa
285 The Roman administration and army withdraw from the major part of Mauritania Tingitana.

Muslim Era:
681 Oqba ben Nafi reaches the Atlantic.
710 The Moroccan Berbers are subdued.
711-13 Tarik conquers Spain.
740-60 Kharijite revolt. Sijilmassa
788-92 Idris I founds the first Muslim dynasty. Fès
803-28 Reign of Idris II. Fès
1053-70 Rise of the Almoravids. Marrakech
1086 Spanish defeated at Zallaqah.
1123 Start of the Almohad movement. Tinmel
1133-47 Rise of the Almohads.
1159 The Almohads rule over the Maghreb.
1195 Spanish defeated at Alarcos. Rabat
1212 Muslim defeat at Las Navas de Tolosa.
1248-69 Rise of the Marinids.
1270-1358 Golden Age of the Marinids. Fès, Salé, Shella
1470-1515 Portuguese conquests. El-Jadida, Safi
1521-54 Rise of the Saadians. Agadir
1541 Fall of Agadir: Portuguese expansion is halted.
1578 Battle of the “Three Kings”.
1578-1603 Reign of Ahmed el-Mansur. Marrakech
1633-69 Rise of the Alawites.
1672-1727 Reign of Moulay Ismail. Meknès
1757-90 Reign of Mohammed ibn Abdallah. Essaouira
1769 The Portuguese quit Mazagan. El-Jadida

Colonisation and Contemporary Era
1844 Battle of Isly (Algeria) against the French.
1859-60 Hispano-Moroccan war: taking of Tetouan.
1880 Conference of Madrid: Morocco comes under foreign control.
1907 French troops disembark at Casablanca.
1912 Treaty of Fès setting up a French Protectorate.
1912-13 Revolt of El-Hiba in the Sous. Tiznit
1912-25 Lyautey is Resident General.
1921-26 The Rif war.
1932-34 Final subjugation of Morocco Ouarzazate by the French army.
1953 Deposition and exile of Mohammed V.
1956 Triumphal return of Mohammed V. Independence of Morocco.
1961 Death of Mohammed V. Coronation of Hassan II.
1975 Green March and beginning of the war against the Polisario.
1999 Death of Hassan II. Coronation of Mohammed VI.

Contemporary Era:

1999 Mohammed VI ascended to the throne on 23 July 1999 upon the death of his father, King Hassan II.

He is the current King of Morocco.

5. Economic Systems
-Country with intermediate income (lower bracket), Emerging financial market
It has the greatest reserves and is the leading exporter of phosphate in the world; tourism is a key sector.
-As is true in many former African colonies, the Moroccan economy remains heavily dependent on the export of raw materials. Also of growing importance to the economy are modern sectors, particularly tourism and telecommunications. Altogether, the modern portion accounts for more than two-thirds of gross domestic product (GDP), even though it employs only about one-third of the country’s workforce.
-The fishing grounds in the Canary Current off Morocco’s west coast are exceptionally rich in sardines, bonito, and tuna, but the country lacks the modern fleets and processing facilities to benefit fully from these marine resources. An important part of a major trade agreement Morocco concluded with the European Union (EU) in 1996 concerned fishing rights, by which the EU pays Morocco an annual fee to allow vessels (mainly Spanish) to fish Moroccan waters.

There are a various sectors of the economy and their contribution to the economic growth:
Banking:
There have been various legislative reforms in the banking sector and the consumer confidence in the system has also built up. Government is also taking measures to improve real estate financing which in turn is helpful for the real estate sector.
Capital Markets:
The Casablanca stock exchange experienced a correction in May 2007. In spite of that the performance was the best amongst many of the Arab nations. There are many opportunities to invest in the capital market.
Insurance sector:
The insurance sector has also experienced substantial growth with more Moroccans becoming aware of the industry. It is the second largest insurance market in Africa with life insurance being the most popular. There is an overall a larger participation of the insurance providers and the industry is growing steadily.
Tourism:
The infrastructure involving road links, airports, accommodation etc are being improved so that tourism can be promoted to not just the foreign tourists but the domestic tourists also. Cheaper flights, improved airport services and improved rail and road links have helped give a big boost to the tourism industry.
Real Estate and Construction business:
Government sponsored large-scale housing projects as part of the Vision 2010 has attracted investors and buyers alike. There is also a boom in the jobs market with requirements for skilled and unskilled labor in such infrastructure projects. There is substantial foreign investment in the sector.

Other industries:
Food processing and fishing are the major activities but the country is now venturing into aeronautics and textile industry. The chemical industry dominated by the production of phosphate by-products and contributes to about one third of industrial GDP. The leather goods industry is also improving and enjoys a duty free entry on the US markets.
Agriculture:
Efforts are on to improve irrigation and modernization of the sector to improve productivity. The sector provides employment to about 40% of job market. Agricultural sector is getting encouragement and efforts are on to ensure that rural living conditions improve with the help of improvement in this field. The provision of electricity throughout the countryside is expected to improve.
Other fields like media and advertising, telecom and IT, retail sector, energy, transport etc are improving and experiencing continual growth which is a positive for the overall economy of the Kingdom of Morocco.

6. Political Systems
Constitutional Monarchy Kingdom with an elected parliament.

King: MOHAMED VI (since July 1999) – hereditary.

Prime Minister: Abdelilah BENKIRANE - Justice and Development Party (since 29 November 2011).
The current King, Mohamed VI came to power after the death of his father, King Hassan II, in 1999. While King Hassan II was an autocratic ruler, King Mohamed VI appears to have a different vision for Morocco’s future. Under his leadership, there seems to be a tendency towards more democratic and liberal values in Morocco. Mohamed VI has stressed the need for social and economic reform and the need to tackle problems like poverty, illiteracy, and unemployment. In relation to this, NGOs and independent human rights organizations achieved more successes due to the increased possibilities the new regime offered.

Constitutional referendum of July 2011(after the Arab Spring)
A national referendum took place on July 1, 2011. Following its results, constitutional amendments were introduced. The new constitution now ensures that the prime minister is selected from the party that received the most votes in elections, rather than chosen by the king. The Prime Minister becomes the ‘President of the Government’, and is able to appoint government officials - an authority previously held by the king. The new Prime Minister is also able to dissolve parliament, the role previously accorded only to Mohammed VI. However, the king remains a key power-broker in the security, military and religious fields. The king continues to chair two key councils - the Council of Ministers and the Supreme Security Council - which make security policy. The Prime Minister can chair these councils, but only using an agenda set by the king.
Religion, Customs & Traditions
Islam is the majority and constitutionally established state religion in Morocco. The vast majority of Muslims in Morocco are Sunni. The Moroccan constitution grants the freedom to worship and congregation, while recognizing Islam as the state religion.
There are also about 100,000 Christians here, mostly of French descent, along with a reported 8,000 Jews who mainly live in Casablanca and Marrakech. When Moroccan Jews left for the new state of Israel in the middle of the 20th century, there was less pressure for them to leave than what was the case in many other Muslim countries.
In Morocco Catholic churches, Protestant churches, and synagogues are found in all of the major cities.
Morocco has changed throughout Moroccan history, Morocco has hosted many peoples, in addition to the indigenous Berbers, Phoenicians, Arabs, South (Sub-Saharan African), and North (Romans, Vandals, Spanish-Andalusians both Muslims and Jewish). Morocco also has many dresses like the caftan which is worn worldwide today.
The traditional dress for men and women is called djellaba; a long, loose, hooded garment with full sleeves. The djellaba has a hood that comes to a point called aqob. The qob protects the wearer from the sun or in colder climates, like the mountains, the qob keeps in body heat and protects the face from falling snow.
For special occasions, men also wear a red cap called a bernousse, more commonly referred to as a Fez. Women wear kaftans decorated with ornaments. Nearly all men, and most women, wear balgha

Food, Language:
-Moroccan cuisine is the culinary star of North Africa. Imperial and trade influence has been filtered and blended into Morocco's culture. Being at the crossroads of many civilizations, the cuisine of Morocco is a mélange of Arab, Berber, Moorish, French, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean African, Iberian, and Jewish influences. Moroccan cooking is enhanced with fruits, dried and fresh -- apricots, dates, figs, and raisins, to name a few. Lemons preserved in a salt-lemon juice mixture bring a unique face to many Moroccan chicken and pigeon dishes. Nuts are prominent; pine nuts, almonds, and pistachios show up in all sorts of unexpected places. Moroccan sweets are rich and dense confections of cinnamon, almond, and fruit perfumes that are rolled in filo dough, soaked in honey, and stirred into puddings. The cooks in the royal kitchens of Fes, Meknes, Marrakech, Rabat and Tetouan refined Moroccan cuisine over the centuries and created the basis for what is known as Moroccan cuisine today. Spices are used extensively in Moroccan food. While spices have been imported to Morocco for thousands of years, many ingredients, like saffron from Taliouine, mint and olives from Meknes, and oranges and lemons from Fes, are home-grown. Common spices include karfa (cinnamon), kamoun (cumin), kharkoum (turmeric), skingbir (ginger), libzar (pepper) , tahmira (paprika), anis seed, sesame seed, kasbour (coriander), maadnous (parsley), zaafrane beldi (saffron) and mint.
- There are a number of languages in Morocco, but the two official languages are Modern Standard Arabic and Berber. Moroccan Arabic (known as Darija) is the spoken native vernacular. The languages of prestige in Morocco are Arabic in its Classical and Modern Standard Forms and French, the latter of which serves as a second language for many Moroccans
There are 12 to 15 million Berber speakers in Morocco, about 40 to 50% of the population. French remains Morocco's unofficial first language, and is taught universally and serves as Morocco's primary language of commerce and economics, culture, sciences and medicine ; it is also widely used in education and government. Morocco is a member of the Francophonie.

Facts about Africa
• There are 54 countries in Africa.
• All of Africa was colonized by foreign powers during the “scramble for Africa”, except Ethiopia and Liberia.
• The Pharaonic civilization of ancient Egypt is one of the world’s oldest and longest-lasting civilizations.
• African continent is the world’s oldest populated area.
• Arabic is spoken by 170 million people on the continent, followed in popularity by English (130 million
• Over 50% of Africans are under the age of 25.
• Africa is the world’s poorest and most underdeveloped continent
• Africa has approximately 30% of the earth’s remaining mineral resources.
• China’s direct investment in Africa exceeds $50 billion.
• over 1 million Chinese citizens live in the African continent. Angola alone has a population of over 350,000 Chinese.
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