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Chemistry Major's Lab @ GC

semester-long projects to learn essential laboratory techniques and analysis
by

Julia Metzker

on 3 December 2016

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Transcript of Chemistry Major's Lab @ GC

make it, write it,
characterize it, write it,
analyze it, write it
...and write it again
Watch & Learn
the reports
the lab notebook
lab skills
experiments
volumetric techniques
titration
The Basics
using a balance
Watch & Learn
extracting, washing & drying
recrystallization
Reaction Work-up
filtration
safety
Goal: to become proficient in common synthetic laboratory techniques
Goal: keep an organized and accurate record of your work in the form of a laboratory notebook
Goal: to demonstrate proficiency in writing informative, concise and professional quality analytical reports
to demonstrate the ability to solve problems using chemical laboratory tools, such as spectroscopy
to enhance yourunderstanding of the chemical properties of atoms, molecules and compounds
to enhance your understanding or the chemical principles of stoichiometry, reactions in solutions, thermochemistry, atomic structure, periodicity and bonding.
Goals:
Lab Notebook
READ
the Lab Notebook Guidelines and Lab Notebook Rubric
http://chemistrylab.wordpress.com/info/notebooks/
BEFORE YOU COME TO LAB
prepare your notebook ...
numbered & dated pages
title of experiment
source for procedure and important references
purpose & introduction
list of equipment & chemicals
including proper disposal & safety precautions!
outline of the procedure
with plenty of room for recording data and observations
DURING LAB
record careful observations as they occur ....
changes/modifications to procedure
ALWAYS provide a rationale
observations
color changes, appearance of crystals, formation of an emulsion, boiling temperatures, test results, etc.
data
recorded masses
all numbers WITH units and uncertainty
simple calculations
spectra - staple directly to notebook, make separate copies for reports
comments
anything of importance that you want to remember later - it's better to have too much information!!
AFTER LAB
review your data and make sense of it ...
numerical AND written analysis of your data & observations
concentration calculations
%yield
spectral assignment
identifying reason for a color change
etc
interpretation of your data & observations
explain how each observation and piece of data supports (or doesn’t support) your conclusion
assess the effectiveness of the procedures and any changes you would make to improve it.
explain MAJOR errors - errors that contributed significantly in a predictable way to your results.
EVALUATION
Notebooks will be evaluated using the Lab Notebook Rubric
Review your notebook and give yourself a score
Goal: keep an organized and accurate record of your work in the form of a laboratory notebook
Lab Reports
READ
the Lab Report Guidelines and Lab Report Rubric
http://chemistrylab.wordpress.com/info/reports/
write a professional scientific report that adheres to the Lab Report Guidelines
a hard-copy of all reports must be turned in by deadline UNLESS you have a late-pass and have made arrangements with your professor
every report must be accompanied by a minimum of two peer reviews
hard-copies of the completed form AND the report with comments are required
every report must be submitted electronically to http://turnitin.com for plagiarism analysis
reports without an originality score will NOT be graded
EVALUATION
Reports will be evaluated using the Lab Report Rubric
Review your report and give yourself a score
Goal: to demonstrate proficiency in writing informative, concise and professional quality analytical reports
Remember
advice for preparing high-quality reports
http://chemistrylab.wordpress.com/info/reports/
Your evaluation for this course will be based, primarily, on your written reports. The ability to effectively communicate scientific information is a paramount goal of the chemistry program and you should make significant progress towards this goal in this course. The reports you submit will be based on the Laboratory Report Guidelines and will be evaluated according to the Laboratory Report Rubric. You should read through both of these documents carefully each time you prepare a report as they are frequently updated.
In chemistry, sources should always be cited using the American Chemical Society format at the end of your report. Consult the following resources for citation format examples.
Chapter 14 from the ACS Style Guide (http://pubs.acs.org/userimages/ContentEditor/1246030496632/chapter14.pdf)
Examples from the Berkeley Library (http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/CHEM/acsstyle.html)

Cite references using superscript numbers, which appear outside the punctuation if the citation applies to a whole sentence or clause.
e.g., Oscillation in the reaction of bezaldehyde with oxygen was reported previously.

Citations should be numbered in the order the citations appear in the report. Never give a single citation more than one number.
a note about citations
3
FALL
Research chemical literature on biofuels and develop a procedure for the synthesis and purification of biodiesel. Your procedure MUST include the following:
Removal of water from oil
Titration of oil to determine appropriate amount of base and alcohol to use
Your NaOH solution will need to be prepared and standardized with KHP – devise a procedure to achieve this.
This step should include an explanation of the necessary calculations
Procedure for carrying out the transesterification reaction
Procedure for separation of the biodiesel from the glycerol by-product
Procedure for washing the biodiesel to remove excess water, alcohol, base, soap and glycerol
Learn important lab techniques by watching videos
Weeks 1 & 2
ALWAYS
protect yourself with a barrier (long pants, long sleeves, safety glasses, close-toed shoes)
WATCH
this video to review important safety precautions in the lab
NEVER
eat or drink in the lab
ALWAYS
review MSDS for chemicals - have this handy in your notebook
NEVER
work alone in the lab
http://chemistry.gcsu.edu/~metzker/RubricsGuidelines/SafetyGuidelines.pdf
READ & SIGN
the safety guidelines and contract
FAILURE
to adhere to safety policies will result in immediate expulsion from the laboratory and a failing grade in the class
-this is serious stuff!
ALWAYS
dispose of chemicals safely according to MSDS recommendations
- including guidelines for specific reports
These are common abbreviations you will find on your graded report. So if you see funny abbreviations on your report DON'T ignore them. Use this feedback to improve your next report.

These are available on the course blog and may be updated over the course of the term.

W – wordy, revise to make more succinct
AWK – awkward phrasing, revise
UPR – unclear pronoun reference
GR – grammatical error
SF – sentence fragment
WT – wrong tense
SS – sentence sprawl (or run-on sentence)
SP – spelling error
C or UNC – unclear meaning, revise to clarify
CAS/NPL – casual writing style, not professional language
NTL – not technical language, revise using appropriate scientific or chemical terms
NN – not necessary
RED – redundant
ORG – problem with structure/organization of paper, develop a clear structure and make it explicit
T – transition unclear, use clear language to articulate the transition between ideas
UNS or UN – unsubstantiated or unsupported statement; revise to include supporting evidence, citations, facts or examples
rxn – reaction
NS – new sentence
RRA – requires reader assumption
NFE – needs further explanation
WS – wrong section
FE – factual error
resources
everything you need for this course is on the course blog: http://chemistrylab.wordpress.com
all resources available at http://chemistrylab.wordpress.com/experiments/biodiesel-project/
Read the Biodiesel Synthesis Guidelines on the blog
Perform titration of the feedstock you chose. You will need to use this data to
calculate the %FFA in your oil
and
the amount of base that will be required
for your biodiesel synthesis. A very important part of your discussion will be to explain the “rule of thumb” mL of 0.1% NaOH (aq) to solid NaOH calculation used to calculate the amount of based used in your reaction.
Week 3
Read the Biodiesel Titration Guidelines on the blog
Your first report on your titration is due at the beginning of Week 4
Use the procedure you developed to prepare your biodiesel. This includes washing, drying and any other purification you plan to perform
Weeks 4-5
Read the Biodiesel Synthesis Guidelines on the blog
Your report on synthesis is due at the beginning of Week 6. (Titration is part of synthesis, so make sure you include it)
Review the technique videos
Review the titration technique video
Using procedures you developed characterize your biodiesel. You can use any techniques you like but you must include both an NMR and IR spectral analysis of the fuel and the feedstock (for comparison).
Weeks 6-7
Read the Biodiesel Characterization Guidelines on the blog
Your report on characterization is due at the beginning of Week 8. (It might be a good idea to include a condensed version of the synthesis in your report)
Watch the spectroscopic technique videos
IR Spectroscopy
NMR Spectroscopy
Develop a procedure (and execute it!) to analyze some aspect of the biodiesel fuel or synthesis. This should ask a question and use experimentation to provide insight into the question
Weeks 8-?
Your analysis report is your final report and is due before Thanksgiving break.
Safety in the Lab
aspirin
SPRING

?
What question will you ask?
logging in to turnitin.com
Go to http://turnitin.com.
Your username is your bobcats email
Password instructions were sent to you by email.
If you didn't get a message, use the retrieve password link and a new one will be sent to your email
Report Due Dates
Put this in your calendar!
read more about these techniques in the organic chemistry survival guide.
read more about these techniques in the organic chemistry survival guide.
read more about these techniques in the organic chemistry survival guide.
read more about these techniques in the organic chemistry survival guide.
read more about these techniques in the organic chemistry survival guide.
read more about these techniques in the organic chemistry survival guide.
http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/101/motm.do?momID=17
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