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Concept Map: Industrial Revolution

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Michelle G

on 6 February 2013

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Transcript of Concept Map: Industrial Revolution

Consequences of the

Industrial Revolution Jasneet Hansi June 15, 2012 Ms. Melnychuk Concept
Map Demographic Revolution What Happened -England's population growth doubled from 1801 (8.7 million) - 1851 (16.8 million) Contributing Factors: -Changes in agricultural practices = higher food supply
-Lower marriage age = higher fertility rate
-Prolonged death rate Led To Urbanization -17% of British population classified as urban in 1700
-By 1840, 48.3% of population was classified as urban
-By 1851, more then half of population was classified as urban Industry Demand Direct Result What Happened -Goods and services doubled in Britain from the first half of the nineteenth century
-Cotton manufacturing tripled between 1796 - 1830
-Coal and iron outputs also increased:
coal: 1815(14.5 million tonnes) - 1848(45.4 million tonnes)
iron: 1835(0.9 million tonnes) - 1848( 1.8 million tonnes)
-Transportation also increased: railway
1838(869 kilometres) - 1850(10 655 kilometres) Agriculture --> Industry -Large population transition from agriculture to industry economies
-There were 41% of men in agriculture during 1760, this decreased to 29% by 1840
-In the same time period, the percentage of men working in industry increased from 24% - 47%
-National industry income rose 11.5% and agriculture income decreased by 12.5% Impacted What Happened Led to -Poor living conditions
cramped slums
food, health and safety insecurity
poverty
-Cramped factories
-Lack of sanitation (clean water, etc)
-High rate of disease and injuries
-Poor wages Consequence - Factory Towns: Standard of Living
of the Working Class
-Witnessed the living conditions of the workers in his father's textile factory in England
-Published "The Condition of the Working Class in England" (1845)
-His work recorded the poor living conditions of industrial laborers in cotton sectors Friedrich Engels E. P. Thompson -Pessimistic view of industrialization
- "Rise of a master-class without traditional authority or obligations; the growing distance between master and man; the transparency of the exploitation at the source of their new wealth and power; the loss of status and above all of independance for the worker, his reduction to total dependance on the master's instruments of production..." Pessimistic view: Standard of Living and Equality of Life Largest Industrial Expansion Textile Production -To meet textile demands of the population, Britain imported:
1.1 million kilograms of raw cotton - 1760
10 million kilograms of raw cotton - 1787
121 million kilograms of raw cotton - 1837
-Textile production was mechanized; however, mechanization happened slowly

-1830's: high textile production = high demand for weavers = hand loom economic boom
-Hand loom weavers increased from 75 000 weavers (1795) - 250 000 weavers (1833)
-Afterwards: machines replaced hand loom weavers = sharp decline for hand loom weavers = hundreds of jobs lost/no profit Consequence: Hand Loom Weavers Establishment of Factories Consequence: Rural to Urban -Many people thought moving to urbanized areas will improve their chances of finding a job
-Many people left self sufficient farming communities and entered into poor living conditions Direct Impact Related To: -Mechanized spinning machines forced employers and owners to recruit large numbers of workers into one area for textile production
-Initially, factories were located near bodies of water for energy; eventually they were converted into cities/towns (urban areas)
-The biggest and most important factory was located in Manchester
Manchester had a population boom: 10 000(1717) - 70 000(1787) - 300 000(1851) What Happened Consequence: Working Condition -Factories dangerous; machinery is dangerous
-Cramped and hot working sectors
-No safety inspections Consequence: Labor Division -The establishment of factories forced employers to reorganize production for higher profit
-Labor division is basically breaking down skilled tasks into several smaller and unskilled tasks that can be done cheaply and efficiently
-In trades such as tailoring or shoe-making, labor division degraded the trade
-Overall, through the division of labor, people lost skills and wages were lowered = poverty Adam Smith -Advocated and described division of labor in his work:
"Wealth of Nations"
- "One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head..." Family Economy -Major consequence of industrialization was to move production away from households causing people to depend on wages
-In most families, the income brought in by the man was not sufficient
-This forced women and children to work in factories Directly Effected Women's Roles -Women were offered slightly more freedom during the revolution
-Women were mostly employed in manufacturing and 50% of these women worked in textile factories
-15% of women worked in manufacturing and 40% of women provided domestic service as servants

-Usually women stayed employed in manufacturing and domestic service until they were married
-After marriage, women participated in traditional gender based roles What Happened Consequence: Children -If a family needed extra income, children usually were sent to work in factories
-For children, factories were more dangerous because children were given the hardest tasks
-Children had less authority, skills and physical strength and were required to work long shifts ultimately effecting their health and saftey
-Children were also exploited because they had small hands that could handle small machine parts
-Children usually kept working until marriage The Sadler Report -The government usually did not take any action against horrific working conditions of laborers
-In 1830's,the British parliament issued the Sadler Report in which interviews of laborers were recorded

Results:
-First factory act passed in 1833
-Limited hours of child labor in textile factories/mills Consequence: Employer & employee Relationship -Before Industrial Revolution, employees had personal relationship employer
-After Industrial Revolution, labor was disposable because of labor division
-There were many conflicts between the demands of the workers and the employers
-The employers also hired and exploited women and children for their small hands and fingers Labor Division Led To: Results Results Result: Proletariat -Coined by Karl Marx
-The proletariat did not own any means of production; they only owned their own labor
-Workers were essentially disposable Worker Resistance Peaceful
Violent Peaceful: -Included efforts to form organizations
-Impeded by the state because business people were favored
-Governments prevented unions from protecting rights of workers and from forming unions/organizations
-Trade Unionism Laws that Prohibited Unions: -In France, the Le Chapelier Law: banned unions (1791- 1848)
-In England, unions were illegal between 1799-1824 Small Organizations: -Within the law; workers able to create small organizations that provided families with insurance for sickness and death
-Only the highly paid worker could use these organizations
-Organizations included:
Mutual Aid
Friendly Societies Laws Lifted
Locally based
Exclusive for skilled workers such as painters, carpenters, and engineers
-Luddism - Luddite Violence
Northern England (1811 - 1817)
Textile districts
Employers who lowered wages were sent threatening letters from 'General Ned Ludd'
Small groups of people destroyed and attacked factories and other establishments at night
Hand loom smashing done by textile workers Violent: Reaction of government: -12 thousand troops were sent north to factories between 1811 - 1812
-Luddism called "Collective bargaining by riot"

Created during the 1850s - 1860s
Limited to skilled workers only Craft Unions National Federations - New Model Unions

-Lower paid workers were finally included in unions by the end of the nineteenth century Lower Paid Workers:

Results:
-First factory act passed in 1833
-Limited hours of child labor in textile factories/mills Only Possible Because Of: Machines -Spinning Jenny allowed major growth in textile production
-England produced more cotton then India in shorter amount of time
-Steam power also used to transport, manufacture goods and mine Machines = Production Boom Engels eventually became Marx's partner and both advocated for the lower classes Consequence Consequence Consequence Consequence Consequence Consequence Consequence Consequence = Direct Impact Consequence Positive Effect Positive Effect Positive Effect What Happened: Consequence Consequence Direct Impact Main Inventions
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