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Aztec, Maya, Inca Civilization

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by

Judy Wright

on 9 April 2014

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Transcript of Aztec, Maya, Inca Civilization

Geography
located in Mesoamerica, also known as central America
400 B C -1571 AD
had a very hot and dry climate much like the desert
lived in central America
around 1200 to 1521
positioned on a swampy island surrounded by Lake Texcoco
located along the western coast of South America along the Andes
1200-1572 AD
occupied what we now know as Columbia all the way down to Chile
lived in high mountains and plains
Economy
Politics
Maya, Aztec, and Inca Civilizations
did not have enough space to farm, so they shaped their hillsides into terraces
cut down many trees and plants and burned them to make room for their ever growing population
Religion
Society
polytheistic
believed that the gods were harmful not helpful
To please the gods the Mayans held human sacrifices, killing many people because the gods "fed" on blood.
upper class controlled politics, religion, and the economy
lower class consisted of peasants, farming families, slaves, and orphans
independent city states
always at war with each other
highlands traded with the lowlands for necessary resources
Cacao beans were extremely valuable and used as currency.
developed a writing system which was much like the Egyptian hieroglyphics.
created and kept records on stone tablets and bark paper books
the Popol Vuh contains Maya legends and history
invented a very accurate calendar that could predict eclipses, solstices, and the seasons
came up with the concept of zero
had elaborately designed observatories where priests studied astronomy.
The Mayans eventually disappeared. Some believe that warfare, rebellions, and drought brought about the end of the Mayan civilization.
believed in Inti, the Sun god, who allegedly created the first Inca
sacrificed llamas, cloth, and food to their gods
believed that certain places had magical powers
the king, priests, and government officials were at the top of the hierarchy, while farmers, artisans, and servants were at the bottom
the Inca had an empire and conquered tribes
the capital city was Cuzco
"paid" government in labor called
mita
government distributed necessary goods
left over goods were stored for emergencies
polytheistic
held human sacrifices
killed roughly 10,000 warriors from other tribes a year
lived in calpullis, or small groups
each calpulli selected a leader who took orders from the king
their hierarchy ranged from the king and nobles to farmers and slaves
the Aztecs lived in an empire
their capital city was Tenochtitlan
the conquered people of the Aztecs were forced to pay tribute
they had a huge trade network
merchants were used as spies
chinampas, or floating gardens were used
the Aztecs made jewelry, clothing, and headdresses
they told speeches and riddles
they created two calendars: one for religion, and one for the days of the year.
studied astronomy
learned to build chinampas from other tribes
they learned how to use plants as medicine
bridges, canals, and temple were made of solid stone
The Aztecs were conquered by Hernan Cortez and the Spaniards who formed alliances with other tribes, had better weapons, cut off supplies and brought disease.
Maya
Aztec
Inca
Both the Maya and the Aztecs were located in Mesoamerica whereas the Inca lived in the West coast of South America.
Maya
Aztec
Inca
All of these civilizations were polytheistic but only the Maya and Aztec worshiped their gods by human sacrifices.
Maya
Aztec
Inca
In the Mayan and Aztec societies, people could could own slaves while the Inca had servants.
Maya
Aztec
Inca
In comparison, the Inca and Aztec were empires and the Maya and Aztec were in a constant state of war.
Maya
Aztec
Inca
Artistic and Oral Achievements
The Decline
Maya
Aztec
Inca
Farming Methods
Maya
Aztec
Inca
Maya
Aztec
Inca
Busy marketplaces were established in the Maya and Aztec civilizations. They also used trading to get what they needed.
The Incas were conquered when Francisco Pizarro and the Spaniards captured Atahualpa and killed thousands of soldiers.
terrace farming created more farmland
llamas carried products to desired destinations
instead of using wheels, the Incas used llamas
houses were built of solid stone which was large and finely joined
built roads and rope bridges
made textiles, pottery, gold, silver as offerings to the gods
All of their history was passed down orally since they didn't have written language.
Scientific, Engineering, and Mathematical Achievements
Maya
Aztec
Inca
Aztec People
The
emperor
was the head of government, chosen by the elders, and he consulted with the priests and the elders before baking decisions.
Montezuma I
ruled the Aztec Empire in he 1400s. during his reign, the empire became more organized and expanded as it conquered neighboring territories.
Capitals
- ( Aztec) Tenochititlan; (Maya) Tikal; (Inca) Cuzco
Pyramids
with temples at the top were built to worship the gods.
Human sacrifice
was practiced throughout the empire, mostly given at he main temple in Tenochititlan. The humans sacrificed were prisoners of war and were killed after battle
Slavery
was common, but different than the slavery practiced by Europeans. Most Aztec slaves were prisoners of war, and others were people who were unable to pay their debts.
Hernan Cortes
-
destroyed Tenochitlan, stole their gold, Spanish explorers claimed the land
Francisco Pizarro -
Spanish conquistador who invaded Inca Empire
Vocabulary
Write the definition with an illustration
The Americas
Mesoamerica
- the region of the Americas were the Mayas, Inca, and Aztecs were located
maize
- another name for corn. It was an important trade item for the Maya.
chinampas
- flowing gardens used by farmers to grow crops
causeways
- raised roads across water that connected the islands of Lake Texcoco
Tenochtitlan
- capital city of teh Aztecs located in modern-day Mexico City on the Yucatan Peninsula
Cuzco
- the capital city of the Incas
Manchu Picchu
- famous Incan city located in the Andes Mountains
conquistadors
- Spanish conquerors such as Hernan Cortes who were looking for gold
step pyramids
- like the Egyptian pyramids; Mesoamericans had the
Chichen Itza
an
d Tikal
pyramids
Quechua
- Incas official language. It was not written language, only spoken
hieroglyphics
- the writing sysstem that used picture symbols for objects and sounds
polytheism
- beliefs in many gods. Aztecs worshipped he sun god like the Egyptian.
monotheism
- the belief in one God
Terrace farming
- Incas farming on mountains
Assignments:
Vocabulary with illustration
draw and color map of the North American Civilizations
Complete comparison Chart
Retell the story about how the Spanish conquered the Aztec
Triple Venn Diagram
http://gallery.sjsu.edu/mexican_amerixan_tradition/colonial/Interact.html

Read
Europeans Interaction Retell your version of what happened
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