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Cells and Systems

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by

Felicia Roberts

on 4 October 2012

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Transcript of Cells and Systems

Cells and Systems How can we make sense of the vast diversity of living things? What do all living things have in common-from smallest to largest-and what variations do we find in the structure and function of living things? We cataeorize things into groups (ex. mammals, amphibians, plants ect.)
all need energy, produce waste and respire
Examples, giraffes have a long neck to eat the leaves of tall trees, a lion has sharp teeth to rip fleash off of their prey. What are some characteristics of living things? All living things :
need energy
respond and adapt to
their environment
reproduce
grow/evolve
produce waste
respire What is the reason cells are small and do they get bigger ? Cells are so small because they need materials to work, such as oxygen, water and food particles. They also need to get rid of waste. If the cells were bigger then they would need more materials and would produce more waste. So cells are small because there is less materials needed and less waste. Cells do not grow bigger when organisms grow. When organisms grow they just produce more cells. What is cell theory? Cell theory:
all living things are composed of one or more cells
cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms
all cells come from already existing cells Two categories of living things Multi-celled Organisms Single-celled Organisms Humans
Trees
Animals
Organisms with more than one cell Euglena
Valvox
Stentor
Organisms with one cell Microscopes - Who invented the first and what types are used today? The first microscope was invented by a Dutch linen merchant named Anton van Leeuwenhoek. The microscope he made could magnify 300x the original size. The types of microscopes used today are compound light microscopes which uses light and lenses to magnify objects up to 2000x.
We also use electron microscopes which use electrons to bounce off the sample then enlarge it to form an image 4000x the original size. Main differences between plant and animal cells Plant cells have a cell wall, animal cells don't
Plant cells have a large, single valcuole in the center, animal cells have multiple
Plant cells posses plastids, animal cells don't
Plant cells have centrioles, animals cells don't
Plant cells are more square shaped, animal cells are more round
Plant cells have chlorophyll for photosynthesis (make their own food), animal cells don't What is the basic unit of all living things? Cells are the basic unit of all living things. Four specialized cells found in humans Muscle cells: move parts of your body
Skin cells: protect your body from the suns drying rays
Red blood cells: carry oxygen around your body
Neurons: carry messages within the human brain Explain the process of fluids and nutrients moving in and out of a cell What are the structures in cells called in general THE END By: Amy, Felicia, Nick, James Animal cell Plant cell cell membrane
cytoplasm
nucleus
vacuoles cell membrane
cytoplasm
nucleus
vacuoles
cells walls
chloroplasts If there is an equal concentration of carbon dioxide particles on both sides of the cell membrane the particles will move into and out of the cell at an equal rate.
But if there is a greater concentration
of carbon dioxide particles inside the cell the particles will move out of the cell at a greater rate then they move into it.
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