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HSCI 120 Cancer (Chapter 15)

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by

Jacob VanderKam

on 27 November 2014

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Transcript of HSCI 120 Cancer (Chapter 15)

Testicular Cancer
Squamous cell cancer:
raised bumps & sores
Skin Cancer
Obesity, estrogen replacement therapy without progesterone, early menarche, late-onset menopause, irregular ovulation, infrequent periods
Uterine Cancer (Endometrial Cancer)
HPV infection (cervical dysplasia), tobacco use, immunosuppression, multiple births, early sexual activity, multiple sex partners, socioeconomic status, and nutritional status
Cervical Cancer
Digital rectal exam
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screenings
Prostate Cancer
most common cause of cancer death in men
Prostate Cancer
Diet, exercise
Maintaining healthy body weight
Pregnancy & breastfeeding decisions
Breast Cancer
Early first menstruation
Late onset of menopause
Family history
Older age
Higher socioeconomic class
Women with no children or having children after 30
Obesity after menopause
Hormone replacement therapy use
Drinking more than two alcoholic beverages a day
Breast Cancer
Change in bowel movements
Change in stool size or shape
Pain in the abdomen or blood in the stool
Colon & Rectal Cancer
Colon & Rectal Cancer
Lung Cancer
Social determinants of health influence risk behaviors, access to health care, and quality of health care
Affordable Care Act of 2010 includes provisions to make cancer prevention tools more accessible
Family history of cancer alters some cancer
screening
recommendations
Genes
interact with environmental exposures & lifestyle behaviors to
alter risk
isk Factors for Cancer
Carcinomas:
arise from epithelial tissue (skin, lining of the intestines and body cavities, surface of body organs, outer portion of glands)

Sarcomas :
arise from connective tissue (bone, tendon, cartilage, muscle, fat tissues)

Leukemias:
cancers of the blood which originate in the bone marrow or the lymphatic system

Lymphomas:
cancers that originate in lymph nodes and glands
Types of Cancer
Cancer starts from a single cell that undergoes a critical mutation caused by:
An error in duplication
Exposure to a carcinogen (cancer-causing substance)
Radiation
Cancer Cell Growth
Complicated system of
checks & balances
Control cell growth & division
Healthy Cell Growth
Condition characterized by uncontrolled cell growth
What Is Cancer?
Participate
in decisions about treatment
Be an informed consumer
Consider how you will interact with others
Consider school or work obligations
Enlist support
Know what physical changes are likely to occur
Consider sperm or egg donation & freezing
Spiritual beliefs & practices can be important
Don’t think about cancer all the time
Living with Cancer
Surgery:
removal of tissue
Cancer Treatments
Early detection
is the key to successful treatment
Cancer Screening
Lymphoma
Cigarette smoking and exposure to chemicals
Ionizing radiation exposure
Infection with a virus
Leukemia
Oral Cancer
The ABCD Evaluation
of Moles for Melanoma
Leading gynecological cause of cancer death & fifth overall cause of cancer death in women
Ovarian Cancer
Colonoscopy
Coughing
Blood-streaked sputum
Chest pain
Difficulty breathing
Recurrent lung infections
Lung Cancer
Cancer Death Rates
by Site
Classified according to the tissue in which they originate, called the
primary site
Classifying Cancers
The Lymph System
Cancer Mortality &
Risk Factor Disparities
Leading Sites of New Cancer Cases and Deaths, 2011
Clonal growth:
uncontrolled replication of single cell
Produces thousands of copies of itself
Single cell goes awry
combination of events must occur before cell turns into a tumor
Located deep within tissues
Protected from factors that increase risk of mutation
exposure to sun (UV)
chemicals
irritation)
Stem cells
pose risk for cancer, but have a special protective mechanism
Possibility of mutation
or an error in DNA replication with each division
Divide when needed to
replace cells
that have died or been sloughed off
Metastasis:
secondary tumor that appears when cancerous cells spread to other parts of the body
Tumor:

mass of extra tissues that may form into either a
benign
(slow growth) or
malignant
(capable of spreading to surrounding tissues) tumor
Oncogene:
gene that drives cell to grow & divide regardless of signals from surrounding cells
Stage of the disease:
how far it has spread
Stage 0:
cancer in situ (in it's place)
Stage I:
small and localized
Stages II and III:
locally advanced, may involve lymph nodes. aka "regional spread"
Stage IV:
metastasized to distant sites
When
metastasized
, it is invasive
Extent of metastasis determines prognosis
Cancer still at its primary site is
localized
Tobacco use
Nutrition & physical activity
Overweight & obesity
Alcohol consumption
Sunlight & other sources of ultraviolet radiation
Other forms of radiation
Chemical & physical carcinogens
Infectious agents
Risk factors:
Use of tobacco products in any form
Exposure to carcinogenic chemicals, arsenic, radon, asbestos, radiation, air pollution, and environmental tobacco smoke
surgery, radiation, chemotherapy; radiation and chemotherapy combination
remove exposure to tobacco smoke or other types of smoke
Age
Genetic and dietary habits
Personal or family history of colon polyps, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer
Smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diet high in fat or red or processed meat, diet inadequate in fruit and vegetables
Surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy

Rectal exams, stool test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, double-contrast barium enema, CT colonography
leading cause of cancer death in women
Breast self-exam
Mammography
during the advanced stage
Difficulty urinating
Pain in the pelvic region
Pain with urination
Blood in the urine
Risk factors
Age, family history
Race
High-fat diet
commonly diagnosed cancer for men
Surgery
Radiation, sometimes in combination with chemotherapy
Hormonal medications
removal or destruction of precursor cells
Invasive cervical cancer treated with combination of surgery, local radiation, and chemotherapy
Pap test significantly reduce rates & mortality
Hysterectomy; radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment
Minimize high levels of estrogen and have regular physician care
surgery, chemotherapy, drug therapy
Using oral contraception
Pregnancy, breastfeeding
Avoiding postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy
Family history; personal history of breast, colon, or endometrial cancer
Surgery, local removal, chemotherapy, immunotherapy
Reduce exposure to sun

Severe childhood sunburn, chronic sun exposure during young adulthood, cumulative sun exposure
Large number of moles
Family history
Chemotherapy, possible bone marrow transplant
No test thus far has been shown to improve detection of
some
cancers, including
lung
and
ovarian
cancers, without increasing harm
Screening tests
are the key to early detection
Clinical trials
Complementary & alternative
medicine
Gene therapy
and genetic testing
Bone marrow
transplantation
Biological therapies:
immunotherapy medications
Radiation:
destroy cancer cells with minimal damage to surrounding slower-dividing tissues
Chemotherapy:
drug treatment that interferes with rapid cell division
Often includes combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation
Sometimes involves immunotherapy or bone marrow transplant
Infections, medications, or genetic change that weakens the immune system
Radiation, herbicides, insecticides, and some chemical exposures
Hodgkin’s lymphoma; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Overproduction of one type of white blood cell & can lead to increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding
Group of cancers that originate in bone marrow or other parts of body where white blood cells form
Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation
Persistent sore in the mouth
Lump or bump that won’t heal
Patch of white or red along the gums or cheeks
Use of cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and/or smokeless tobacco
High levels of alcohol consumption
Cancers that develop in the mouth or the pharynx
Self-exams
Medical exams

Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation

Family history, personal history of testicular cancer in other testicle, abnormal development of the testes, history of undescended testicle, infertility or abnormal sperm
Most common cancer for men
aged 20–35
Chapter 15:
Lumpectomy
Mastectomy
Radiation and/or chemotherapy treatments
Most common
sites are brain, liver, bone marrow
Cancer
4
basic types of cancer:
1
2
3
4
Family history
Lifestyle factors
Social & economic factors
Environmental factors
Men
Women
#1
cause of cancer death in the U.S.
2
nd
most commonly diagnosed cancer
Symptoms:
Prevention:
Treatment:
3
cause of cancer death in the U.S.
rd
3
rd
most commonly diagnosed cancer
Risk factors:
Warning Signs:
Early Detection:
Treatment:
Sigmoid
2
nd
Risk factors:
Prevention:
Detection:
Treatment:
Second
Most
Symptoms
Early detection:
Treatment:
Risk factors:
Early detection:
Treatment:
Risk factors:
Prevention:
Treatment:
Risk factors:
Prevention:
Treatment:
Risk factors:
Prevention:
Treatment:
3
forms of skin
cancer
Basal cell cancer:
lesions & sores
Melanoma:

spreads quickly
Risk factors:
Detection:
Treatment:
Treatment:
Early signs:
Risk factors:
Treatment:
Risk factors:
Cancers that originate in the lymph system, part of the body’s immune system
Treatment:
Risk factors:
If you or a family member is diagnosed with cancer:
For next class...
Find out about your family's

medical history
Print out

study guide
for monday
Watch an episode of the
A-Team
Final Exam NEXT WEDNESDAY!!!
Full transcript