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Chapter 9 Section 3 and 4 Outline
Transcript of Chapter 9 Section 3 and 4 Outline
Jacob Suarez and Breydon Doubet
At the time the seas were very dangerous, but American ships would sail to China and India for expensive cargo of silk, tea, and furs. Because of all of this profit they sailed all over the world. When the French and British went to war in the mid-1790s it gave America a great chance for trading because they wouldn't trade with each other.
Sailing at this time was dangerous because of the Barbary Pirates. They would take hostages and demand payment. They would also take their cargo.
Tripoli demanded money from the U.S. and when they refused they chopped down the U.S. flag in Tripoli which is a sign of war. They had a war in 1804 over this and American prisoners. It ended in 1805 but America had to pay $60,000 to get their prisoners back.
When the time for a new president came Thomas Jefferson was easily reelected because of his great ways. The great trading at the time was being threatened by the war between France and Britain now. This war was helping the U.S. because with France and Britain not trading the U.S. can trade with either without complications because they were neutral. Later however both countries thought that the U.S. were helping one another, and this complicated things for the U.S.
The British were low on sailors for the war, because of the navy's poor conditions on food, living, etc. So they claimed rights to search for deserters on U.S. ships, and would state that some U.S. sailors were British just so they could get sailors. A lot of the time the British would wait outside an American harbor and wait for ships, and then search for deserters. One time the Chesapeake was asked to be searched and when they refused the British open fired killing 3 and wounding 18. Some wanted war with Britain, but Jefferson wanted to find a peaceful solution
To retaliate Jefferson passed an embargo act to ban trade with all foreign countries hoping to affect Britain. But this didn't do anything because the British traded with Latin America. This act was repealed and another was placed and it just banned trade with Britain and France, which this also didn't do anything. After Jefferson's second term, James Madison takes office for president.
James Madison took office at a very bad time because of the embargo crisis. In 1810 congress passed a law allowing either France or Britain to trade with America but only who allowed it first, which France did. However Napoleon still seized American ships to take cargo which the U.S. did not know about.
Out in the frontier settlers were moving out into Native American country promised by treaty. So some Indians renewed contracts with the British. A powerful Shawnee chief named Tecumseh built a Native American confederacy among many tribes to try and stop more movement out west. Tecumseh knew that treaties with the Natives from the U.S. were worthless. Him and his brother, the Prophet, were telling Natives to stop using American's supplies and acting like them. An Army general feared that the Shawnee brother's would form an alliance with the British and attack. So he told Tecumseh that the British were weak and that America had more soldiers than the Indians did.
In 1811 when Tecumseh was busy trying to expand his cause in the South the Army decided to attack his town of Prophetstown. The U.S. won, but instead of surrendering Tecumseh joined forces with the British. A group called the War Hawks pressured the U.S. government into war with the British. The War Hawks wanted to avenge and expand U.S. power and land. Henry Clay and John Calhoun led this group. In 1812 James Madison saw that a war was inevitable, so he declared war on Britain. The British wanted to stop searching American ships, but it was too late to get the word in time and a war started.
The War Hawks used war chants for good luck and often times they lost. The Americans were often times not properly trained and lost against a lot of their opponents.
After the British fought the French and won, so now they had more troops to fight America with. In August 1814 the British docked in Chesapeake Bay and marched on D.C. They crushed all militia and opposing in their path. They burned nearly the entire city including the White House.
The British did not hold D.C. but sailed to Baltimore. However at Baltimore there was militiamen waiting for them and they didn't succeed. Francis Scott Key watched artillery on this night of September 13-14. Getting the idea for the Star Spangled Banner. In the North General Sir George Prevost attacked Plattsburgh in New York off the shore of Lake Champlain. The invasion stopped when a naval force defeated the fleet and force. The British realized that this war was too costly and wanted to end it.
In December 1815 America and Britain signed the Ghent treaty in Ghent, Belgium. This ended the war, but in New Orleans the word hadn't reached yet and Andrew Jackson led troops to attack the British from behind cotton bales. The Americans crushed the British. This helped him in his presidency in 1828.
When Tecumseh died in 1813 the Indian Confederacy sort of died. In March 1814 a Tennessee planter named Andrew Jackson attacked a group of Creek Indians. They killed 550 Indians and took their camp, and they took their lands for America.
Oliver Hazard Perry was creating an army and had to flee from his headquarters in Putin Bay the Americans fought a war that they were not ready for and defeated the British naval force.