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Origins of the Cold War

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by

Jerrid Harris

on 13 April 2016

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Transcript of Origins of the Cold War

Origins of the Cold War
Soviet Spy Hunt
ACE:Soviet Spies
KING: CIA Director
QUEEN: Doctor
Number Cards: CIA Agents
The goal of the game is for the CIA to unveil the secret agent/spy.
KWL Chart
The "Containment" Policy
KWL: Chart
Recap...
The most important change in the U.S. Policy after WWII was the beginning of the Cold War
The Cold War is known as an era of distrust and hostility between the United States & the Soviet Union
Relations...
The United States & the Soviet Union were super powers and rivals who dominated world politics

During this era both countries had competing ideologies...

What were the major ideas of the USA and USSR?
The Battle of Ideas...
hostility, proxy battles, and a near nuclear war.
Did you say bomb?
Do you remember the
Manhattan Project
?
The U.S. had a monopoly on nuclear weapons...
In response the U.S.S.R. began building the bomb.
ARMS RACE
At the close of WWII...
Eastern Europe:
-Stalin wanted a "buffer zone" between the USSR & the democratic nations in the West.
-He used his army to install communist gov'ts in these areas.

Western Europe:
-Capitalism and Democracy prospered

In 1949, the United States formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (
NATO
): a military alliance among democratic countries in Europe & North America

In 1955, the Soviet Union initiated the
Warsaw Pact
: this was a military alliance of eight communist countries
Warsaw Pact
&
NATO
The Spread of Communism...
"Domino Theory": The US feared that communist countries would turn their neighbors into communist
In response, The U.S. created a foreign policy called
Containment
to stop Soviet influence & the spread of communism

Iron Curtain
These differing concepts/ideas led to distrust,
What will the US do?
During this activity,
-You can pair up within your peer accountability teams
-You will read a discuss with your partner the excerpts and complete each task.
-After each document we will come together and discuss our findings.
When the USSR began to pressure Greece & Turkey to turn communist, the U.S. created the Truman Doctrine, promising economic & military help to any nation threatened by communism

The Truman Doctrine worked & neither Greece nor Turkey fell to communism

Truman Doctrine
Marshall Plan
The U.S. created the Marshall Plan which offered $13 billion to help rebuild post-war Europe

By 1952, Western Europe recovered & Communism never took root

Recap...
Which American
foreign policies
(1945-1952) were, in your opinion, valid "Cold War" policies? Which were NOT? Explain.
The fall of China & the Korean War
How did the United States successfully
contained
communism in Europe?

Recap...
What do you
know
about China and the Korean War?
Buffer zone?

Iron Curtain?
George Kennan?
Sphere of Influence?
Berlin?
Arms Race?
China...
1949 Communist forces led by Mao Zedong took control of China and the Cold War spread to Asia
The fall of China was a shock to the USA & President Harry Truman took the blame for “losing China”
Civil War
Meanwhile in the USSR...
The Soviets create the
Hydrogen Bomb
.
Why didn't the US save China from Communism?
-Culture?
-Trade?
Problem with Korea...
-During/After WWII Korea was ruled by
Japan
.
-After WWII it was divided just like Germany...
North=USSR,

South=USA
-38th parallel was made the division point.
-Both the US and the Soviet Union wanted a unified Korea
...Korea will be a battle ground for Cold War Politics.
What initiated this "proxy war"?
- In 1950, North Korea (using
Soviet supplied weapons
) crossed the
38th parallel
° & attacked South Korea.
- The Soviets and the North Koreans were able to push the South Korean people down to
Pusan
.
- When South Korea appealed to the United Nations, the USA sent troops to Korea to contain communism.
- But, when the USA pushed too close to
China
, the
Chinese Army
entered the war & helped North Korea.

- After the war, Korea was divided along the
38th parallel
°with a
communist gov’t in North Korea
& a
democracy in South Korea.

The United Nations met about North Korea crossing the
38th parallel
and invading South Korea
-Soviet Union was absent at UN meeting
-The
Security Council
decided to seek them as an aggressor (
Police Action
)
NSC-68
-Truman signed "
NSC-68
" into law. This quadrupled (
4X
) the size of our
military spending
.
-This is when the U.S. decided to make
containment in Asia
a high priority.

(National Security Council - memo #68)
Meanwhile, in America...
.
The Red Scare (Round 2)
- Truman initiates his "
Loyalty Program.
"
- 3,000,000 federal employees are investigated
- 3,000 are forced to resign or are dismissed...
mostly "New Dealers"...why
?
-
Would we continue to enjoy our freedoms in a Cold War climate
?
- The
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
-
Richard M. Nixon
becomes a well known Commie investigator
- The "
Alger Hiss Trial
" gains national attention and encourages more "
Red Hunts
"



Red Scare (Round 2...continued)
-
McCarthyism
- Russian bomb tests validated the fear that bomb secrets were "leaked"
-
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
(Jewish American/Soviet Spies) were executed for leaking secrets to the Soviets
- Senator
Joe McCarthy
(WI) accused Dean Acheson (Sec. of State) of hiring 250 employees that were commies...
no significant convictions!!!
- McCarthyism becomes a massive "
witch hunt
" that charged many Americans of being "Red."
- "
The Hollywood Ten
"...
no significant convictions!!!
- "
The Army McCarthy Hearings
"...
no significant conviction!!!
- Little to no valid evidence was ever found that Communists had infiltrated our gov't
- McCarthy died of alcoholism 3 years after the Army Hearings.
The Cuban Missile Crisis (20c)
Cuban History
- Prior to 1952, America and Cuba had a long-lasting and profitable relationship with each other.
- In 1952, a tyrannical General (
Batista
) seized control of the island and created an oppressive regime in Cuba.
- In 1956, after a failed 1st attempt,
Fidel and Raul Castro
took over the island through revolution and created a
Communist
political system.
-
This crippled the relationship it had with America
!!!
The Bay of Pigs Fiasco
(1961)
- In April of 1961, the
CIA planned an invasion
of Cuba to oust Castro
- Once the invasion began,
President

Kennedy
denied to provide them with Air support. The invasion failed. The refugees were tortured for info.
- This led to Castro aligning Cuba with the
Soviet Union
for military and financial aid.
- The stage was now set for a
Cold War standoff in the Western Hemisphere
!!!
The Cuban Missile Crisis
(1962)
- U.S.-Cuban relations were further worsened when Castro allowed the installation of
medium-range nuclear missiles
on Cuba.
- These missiles would have placed most of the U.S., Canada, and Latin America within the range of attack.
- When the missiles were discovered by a
U-2 spy plane
, the Kennedy administration ordered a Khrushchev to remove his missiles from Cuba
- Khrushchev brought up the
American missiles that had been placed in Turkey
....that we didn't know he knew about...Whoops (again).
- Part 1
- Part 2
- Part 3
Conclusion:
- As nuclear warheads headed to Cuba on Soviet ships, the Soviet Union agreed to withdraw its missiles from Cuba
if the U.S. would secretly withdraw its missiles from Turkey and pledge not to invade Cuba
. Both sides agreed and the crisis was concluded.
Why, in your opinion, is the Korean War known as America's "
Forgotten War
?"

-
5-7 sentences
-
1 Historical citation
In your opinion, does the
Red Scare
of the 1950's
strengthen
or
weaken
our understanding of our
American Civil Liberties
? Briefly Explain.
(5-7 sentences)
Douglas MacArthur - The
Hero of the Pacific
returns.
MacArthur lands behind enemy line at
Inchon
MacArthur wants to use "the bomb"
"Truman is a fool"
"You have no decency, sir!"
Whoops!
U-2 Spy Plane
Any chance you back down?
Nope.
(in Russian)
Bomb 'em!
What he said.
Bomb "em!
Bomb 'em!
Bomb 'em!
Bomb 'em!
How bout' now?
Still nope.
(In Russian)
Nobody freak out
I'm kinda freaking out
I'm the man...(heh) told everyone there was nothing to worry about.
The Vietnam War
- Now the
spread of communism
in Asia led the U.S. to become involved (yet again) in a
civil war in Vietnam.

- Involvement in Vietnam from 1950 to 1973 proved to be
America’s longest & most controversial war.
-Since 1887, France controlled the colony of Vietnam in SE Asia

-By 1945, Communist leader
Ho Chi Minh
led a war of independence for Vietnam

-Truman & Eisenhower feared the spread of communism in Asia (“
domino theory
”) & sent aid to France.

-Vietnam won independence in 1954 but was divided along the
"17th parallel."
Ngo Dinh
Diem
became democratic president of South Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh
gained control of communist North Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh’s
communist supporters in the North were called the
Vietminh

In South Vietnam, a group of communists called the
Vietcong
were formed to oppose Diem & unify Vietnam

-South Vietnamese President Diem led a corrupt government, offered little assistance to the poor, & oppressed Buddhists.
-Presidents Eisenhower & Kennedy supported Diem despite his growing unpopularity.

In 1963, Buddhist monk Quang Duc immolated himself to protest Diem’s regime
In 1963 President Kennedy recognized that Diem had lost control of Vietnam & gave approval for the
assassination of Diem

-After JFK’s death in 1963, the responsibility for Vietnam fell to
Lyndon B. Johnson ("LBJ")
-Diem’s assassination led to chaos in
South Vietnam

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964
- "Reports" of North Vietnamese gunboats had attacked the USS Maddox in the
Gulf of Tonkin.

-LBJ and Congress responded with the
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
which gave Lyndon Johnson broad powers to “defend Vietnam at any cost.”
- This was a "blank check" to fight war.

Vietnam "Escalation"
Troop escalation

By 1968, over 500,000 U.S. soldiers were fighting in Vietnam
In “
Operation Rolling Thunder
,” the U.S. military began bombing North Vietnam.

Fighting in Vietnam
The goal of U.S. military was to defeat the Vietcong & support democracy in South Vietnam...Problems:
But, the Vietcong lived among the civilians in Vietnamese in cities & villages (
who is the enemy?
)
The Vietcong used
guerrilla tactics
to combat U.S. military superiority
Jungles
made fighting difficult

The air force bombed villages & supply lines
(Ho Chi Minh Trails)

Soldiers were sent on deadly
“search & destroy”
missions into the jungles to find the Vietcong
Despite overwhelming military superiority, the U.S. could not win in Vietnam & the war became unpopular at home
Television made Vietnam a “living room war”
TV broadcasts reported body counts, atrocities, declining troop morale, & lack of gains in the war
The “Living Room War"
General Westmoreland & the Credibility Gap

The American public believed their was a “
credibility gap
” between what the gov’t was saying & the reality of the Vietnam War

“Vietcong surrender is imminent”

“The U.S. has never lost a battle in Vietnam”

“There is a light at the end of the tunnel”
The Tet Offensive, 1968
-In 1968, the Vietcong launched the
Tet Offensive
against U.S. forces in South Vietnam.
-The attack was contrary to media reports that the U.S. was winning the Vietnam War.
-The war was now truly "lost."
The
Tet Offensive
was a turning point in the Vietnam War
American attitudes towards the war changed &
anti-war movement
grew
President Johnson began to question whether the war could be won &
LBJ announced that he would not seek re-election in 1968!!



The Tet Offensive, 1968
Protesting the Vietnam War
Since 1965, U.S. troops had been in Vietnam… but 1968 was the height of the Vietnam War & the year of the disastrous Tet Offensive


As more men were drafted into the war, the larger the anti-Vietnam protests became.
Many men started "
draft dodging
"
Student protests, the killing of civilians, the drafting of large numbers of African Americans, Hispanics, & high-school dropouts increase the
Anti-War movement
.

LBJ’s decision not to run for re-election &
the assassination of Robert Kennedy
left the Democrats divided for the election of 1968.
Republican Richard Nixon
took advantage of the divided Democrats & won the
1968 election (The Rise of Conservativism)
.
"Vietnamization"

Nixon & National Security Advisor
Henry Kissinger
developed a plan called
Vietnamization
: gradually withdraw U.S. troops & replace them with South Vietnamese soldiers

But, Nixon really wanted a “knockout blow” in Vietnam &
secretly sent U.S. troops Cambodia & ordered bombings of Cambodia and Laos

-When Americans found out about Nixon’s attacks on Cambodia & Laos, it set off the largest protest in U.S. history.
-250,000 people, mostly students on college campuses, protested the war & some protests turned violent.
-4 students died when the National Guard shot into a crowd of violent protestors at
Kent State University in 1970

-In 1973, the U.S. & North Vietnam agreed to a
cease fire
& the U.S. withdrew troops from Vietnam (
Gerald Ford
)
-In 1975, North Vietnam violated the cease fire, invaded South Vietnam, & unified the nation under a communist government
-
By 1975, the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon fell & Vietnam became unified under the Communist government
-Vietnam proved Containment could not be sustained


"The war ends with a whimper"
"We've got to get
rid of this guy."
I'll send military "
advisers
" to assist the South Vietnamese, but this is "
their war.
"
My support = $,
but that's it.
I'll take it
The Ho Chi Minh Trails
"Baby Killers"
"Murderers"
"Pigs"
"Military Advisers"
(Special Forces/Green Berets)
Full transcript