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Teaching Writing to ESL Students
Transcript of Teaching Writing to ESL Students
* Focuses on the benefits of feedback for English language learners and the different ways to give students feedback on their writing.
* Over the past twenty years, changes in writing pedagogy have transformed feedback practices done by teachers, where teacher feedback is now accompanied with peer feedback, writing workshops, oral-conferences, or computer-delivered feedback.
* Hyland’s article describes the positive and negative aspects of each form of feedback, including: teacher written feedback, teacher response to error, teacher conference and oral feedback, peer feedback and self-evaluation, and computer-mediated feedback.
* L2 learners greatly valued teacher’s written feedback and consistently rate it more highly than alternative forms such as peer and oral feedback. "Effective Writing Assessment and Instruction for Young English Language Learners"
by: Melissa Schulz
* Provides early childhood education teachers with information about differences amongst English Language Learners because they are not a homogeneous group.
* Teachers need to know how to evaluate and instruct English Language learners in the writing process who come from a wide range of educational experiences and diverse academic backgrounds.
* This article provides teachers with recommendations for using appropriate writing assessments and writing strategies with English Language Learners in the early childhood classroom.
* Schulz gives educators several suggestions for guiding principles when assessing L2 learners. Assessment practices can be developed through authentic writing opportunities where the teacher can observe each student’s individual writing growth over time.
* Schulz’s article suggests four different approaches to help English Language Learners begin to build a writing process, which include language experience, shared writing, interactive writing, and independent writing.
* The article focuses on using multiple authentic writing assessments. Schulz suggests that teachers can learn more about student’s individual writing strengths and weaknesses if they conduct multiple assessment formats, such as self-assessment checklists, writing conferences, and writing portfolios. -Motivating students to become creative through their writing
-Control group: reading and comprehension activity
-Experimental group: taught by using a literature based approach and handouts
-Using a literature based approach to spark writing ideas
-They need something deeper than the teacher telling them to write they're capable of writing
-Connecting with literature allows them to tap into their imaginative selves
-Creates more expressive, confident pieces of writing
-Connect with characters and similar issues/hardships Writing Creativity via a Literature Based Language Instruction. By: Muthusamy, Chittra; Mohamad, Faizah; Ghazali, Siti; Subrayan, Angelina "Reading and Writing Pathways to Conversation in the ESL Classroom"
By: Gisela Ernst and Kerri Richard
* Ernst and Richard’s discuss an ESL program that incorporates the multilingual wealth of students’ languages and experiences into classroom life
* The article outlines how literacy can be a natural part of the ESL classroom, creating pathways to meaningful conversations between second language learners.
* To start, Ernst and Richard’s address how the physical setting of the classroom can contribute to meaningful conversation. They do this by describing a teacher’s ESL classroom named Terri.
* Ernst and Richard explain five literacy-based techniques that support second language learning strategies and foster development: thematic focus, classroom culture, read aloud, publishing books, and literary framework. "Writing Instruction And The Development of ESL Writing Skills: Is There A Relationship?" "A Model for Scaffolding Writing Instructions: IMSCI"
by: Sylvia Read
* IMSCI is an acronym for a series of steps based on the scaffolding method of learning. The I stands for inquiry, M stands for modeling, S stands for shared writing, C stands for collaborative writing, which is especially helpful for English-language learners, who benefit from oral rehearsal or ideas and sentences before composing, and I stands for independent writing.
* This method is particularly helpful for students who are English-language learners because it focuses on using different genres to help students understand and respond to the expectations of the writing assignment.
* The IMSCI model was developed for organizing and scaffolding writing instruction and sequences instruction in a way that allows the teacher to model the process of writing and the product of the writing. -This article focuses on the correlation between in-class instruction and the development and growth of ESL students in regard to writing across the curriculum.
-There are different approaches that teachers implement in their classroom, such as using both L1 and L2, and also the Process Approach; but there are also other factors that have a significant effect on a learner’s development and growth.
-classroom input and written output, and the social context of the classroom in which the ESL student is immersed
-research which states that the relationship between L1 and L2 deals more or less with the skills acquired in the L1 that in turn make a difference on the L2
-It is not so much the actual grammatical and linguistic demands of the L1, but the writing task itself that affects the end product of the composition in the L2
-“process” classroom which is aimed more toward the culmination of a piece of writing; brainstorming, drafting, revising, editing, developing a sense of audience, and peer conferencing
-In a six-month study performed by Urzua (1987), a group of young Asian children went through this process approach and seemed to develop a sense of pride and confidence in their writing, enabling them to carry forward with different pieces
-the overall nature of the classroom is more difficult to establish for teachers
-more focus on the actual composing process of a student’s written work rather than how far they have come with the quality of their work
-sociocultural factors also need to be taken into consideration Developing ESL Writing Materials
By: Sandra McKay -addresses the benefits of developing writing skill, how writing materials can be used in the classroom, and what strategies children acquire to better their writing skill
-Writing= the focus is more on acquiring these skills as time progresses, and introducing them when necessary rather than having explicit teaching just on those form skills
-With the ultimate goal of teaching writing to ESL students be that they become independent, creative, and imaginative writers, students need to draw on prior knowledge from their schemas, develop rhetorical patterns, develop social awareness, and develop language
-Using both the writing product and process approach can enhance these benefits of writing
-When students are faced with each task of the writing process as a step-by-step process, alongside having instruction and engaging activities about writing form, they will become more independent writers.
-They will be developing strategies and understanding more of the importance of writing independently "The Need to Understand ESL Students' Native Language WritingExperiences." By: Dong, Yu Ren. -article focused on a study done of 26 first year college students who were told to write autobiographies of their experience learning to write in their native language, and to delve back into their elementary years to discover how they learned to acquire the English language
-purpose: examine differences between L1 and english; what teachers can do to make their students feel more comfortable and willing to learn
-most common similiarity: choice to write in L1
-freedom they had throughout their writing with such a wide variety of topics and options, which enabled them to become more independent writers
-close connection between reading and writing: reading books in their native language gives them a sense of comfort and "home" to spark their imagination
-We need to pride them of their rich cultural backgrounds and encourage their native language in the classroom
-We need to recognize these DIFFERENCES and not view their errors or mistakes in writing as a DEFECIT
-There is nothing that fuels their creative juice and imaginative brains more than allowing them to use the skills and knowledge they have already acquired