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AC 08 Roman Art
Transcript of AC 08 Roman Art
Arrival of Etruscans in northern Italy 1200 – 700 BC
Greek derived language and religion
Urban civilization established in fortified hilltop cities.
Controlled northern and central Italy
Etruscan tomb and Sarcophagus
Similar to the Egyptians, the Etruscans put much care into preparing for death.
The reclining couple is dining. The Greeks were shocked by the relative freedom women enjoyed in Etruscan Society (Greeks didn’t eat with their wives, for example).
She-Wolf of the Capitol,
c. 500 BC. Bronze.
Established in 510 BC.
Citizens elected representatives to run the government.
The recent invention of concrete or cement was widely brought into use .
Conquered Greece in 146 BC.
Architecture assimilated the Greek styles.
Augustus (formerly Octavian Caesar) became the first Emperor in 27 BC.
Pax Romana: 27 BC – 180 AD. Peace prevailed within the empire.
Significant expansion of its territories.
Crucifixion of Jesus (c. 33 AD) and persecution of Christians.
Destruction of Pompeii – 79 AD.
Constantine recognizes Christianity in 325 AD.
Division of the Empire: Eastern and Western.
Fall of the Western Empire in 476 AD.
Sculpture = PROPAGANDA
Pompeii: Villa of the Mysteries
Vesubius' Eruption 79 A.C.
Republic: 50-40 B.C.
The artist of this wall painting demonstrated a knowledge of linear perspective- in which the lines recede to a vanishing point.
Many paintings were only uncovered within the past two centuries.
Depth is indicated by making the objects farther in the background blurry, similar to our vision.
Here we have the bust (the head and shoulders) of a Roman leader During the Republic.
Because the Romans didn’t believe in the body as much as the Greeks, they often felt a bust alone could convey a person’s identity.
During the Republic, age was very important to convey wisdom.
This person is serious, experienced, and determined.
Compare this to the idealized Egyptian and Greek portraits.
Augustus of Primaporta, c. 20 BC. Marble.
Idealized postumous portrait of Augustus addressing his troops in the field.
Different than Republic portraiture: because he would only be seen by a few people, he could present himself as he liked.
The cupid by his feet proclaims his divine descent.
Vespasian, c. AD 75.
Marble, life size.
This portrait shows the emperor refering back to the aged wisdom of the Republic, rather than being depicted as an eternally youthful god as Augustus.
Portrait Bust of Hadrian. 130-138 A.D.
While the portrait of Augustus was inspired by Greek athletes, Hadrian’s portrait is inspired by mature Greek men.
After this, beards became thestyle for Roman emperors for over a century and a half.
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, Rome, AD 175.
Presents a god-like image of the Roman emperor as ruler of the world.
Charles IV by Manuel Tolsá - “El Caballito” in Mexico City, Ca. 1700s
During the Colony, Spaniards tried to transform Mexico City into the “New Rome”
Portrait of Marcus Aurelius •A.D. 175-180.
Compare this portrait to the previous one, where Aurelius shows superhuman grandeur.
This is the first time we have a portrait of a Roman emperor shown saddened, weary, or even worried.
This marks the beginning of the end of Classical art in the Roman world.
Portrait of Caracalla, A.D. 211-212
The ruthless character of this emperor is captured in his portrait.
He arranged the death of his wife and father-in-law.
Trajan Decius, 250 A.D.
Presented with bags under his eyes, a sad expression, and looking nervous rather than engaging the viewer.
He is best know for his persecution of Christians.
This is an anguished man in out-of-control times.
Portrait of Constantine, A.D. 315-330.
The head, 8 feet tall, is part of a colossal 30 foot high stature, comparable to the rock-cut portraits of Ramses II.
The personality of the emperor is lost through the size, leaving only authority.
Constantine marks the end of Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages.
Utilitas, Firmitas, and Venustas
function, structure and beauty
Round Arch & Barrel Vault
Pantheon of Agrippa
Arch of Constantine
Baths of Caracalla
Temple of Fortuna Virilis, Rome. Late second century BC
Dedicated to Portunus, God of the harbor
Temple of the “Sybil,” Tivoli, Italy, early first century BC
To provide water for a town they built miles and miles of aqueducts.
These included bridges and tunnels for the water.
Pantheon of Agrippa
Dedicated the Olympian Gods.
Elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire.
Built between 72 AD - 80 AD.
Gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology.
Monumental architectural settings for the exaltation of the rulers’ achievements and the glorification of the Roman imperial power
Public hall designed to accommodate large numbers of various kinds of business people: stock exchanges, law courts, business offices, administrative bureaus, civic services.
This was not a religious center.
Column of Trajan, 112 A.D.
Commemorative monument of victories.
In the second century A.D., emperors Trajan, Hadrian, and the Antonines brought the Roman Empire to its greatest extent and power. This is called the High Empire.
As it goes up, the images get bigger so people can still read it from the ground.
Multistory apartment blocks, where regular people lived.
Men and women enjoyed coming to the baths to get exercise and clean themselves, but also to meet with friends, cruise for sexual partners, and read at the library.
The baths had hot, temperate, and cold pools, steam rooms, saunas, exercise rooms, hair cutting salons, restaurants, and reading rooms with collections of books.
Arch of Constantone Rome. AD 312
Ornamental version of a city gate, often in the city center, bridges or roads.
Portraits = propaganda.
Values and political events of the time.