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Verb Tenses

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Jonathan Tang

on 16 May 2013

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Transcript of Verb Tenses

By: Nathan Mac, Jonathan Tang, and Kate Xu Verb Tense Introduction to Verb Tense Verb tenses are used in English to express time. There are three basic tenses: past, present, and future. Each has a perfect form which indicates completed action. Perfect tenses can be formed adding auxiliaries ( be, can, has, have, had, etc.). Simple/Perfect Present Tense The Simple Present refers to an action that is not only happening now. The statement is always true.

The Present Perfect consists of a past participle and it designates action which began in the past but continues into the present. Simple/Perfect Past Tense Ex. Peter drank beer for three year. (Simple present)

Peter has drank for three years. (Perfect Perfect) Simple Past indicates something that started and finished in the past.

Past Perfect designates action in the past just as Simple Past does, but the action of the perfect past is an action completed in the past before another action. Ex. Stewie built a time machine in episode "Mind over Murder" (Simple Past)

Stewie had built a time machine in "Mind over Murder." (Past Perfect) Future Simple/Perfect Tense Simple Future is actions that will happen in the future.

Future perfect is actions that will be completed at a specific time in the future. Ex. Chris will finish his homework tomorrow. (Simple Future)

Chris will have finished his homework tomorrow. (Future Perfect) Verb Tense Consistency Controlling Shifts in Verb Tenses Changes in verb tense help readers to understand the temporal relationships among events. However, unnecessary or inconsistent shifts in tense can cause confusion. Try to maintain one tense throughout the entire writing, and indicate changes in time by changing tense relative to the primary tense Guidelines DO NOT shift from one tense to another if the time frame for each action/state is the same but DO shift tense to indicate a change in time frame from one action/state to another. Controlling Shifts in Paragraph/Essay Establish a primary tense for the main discourse, and use occasional shifts to other tenses to indicate changes in time frame Use Past Tense to: Narrate events and refer to an author or an author's ideas as historical entities. Present Tense is used to... State facts, discuss ideas, describe actions, refer to perpetual/habitual actions, and for dramatic effects (something is happening NOW!) Mr. Boegman's 5th Period English Future Tense... ...is expressed using adverbs/contextual cues. Using Other Tenses in Conjunction With Simple Tenses Perfect and/or progressive tenses can sometimes only be differentiated in context of other sentences General Guidelines for Use of Perfect Tenses Past primary narration corresponds to Past Perfect (had + past participle) for earlier time frames Present primary narration corresponds to Present Perfect (has or have + past participle) for earlier time frames Future primary narration corresponds to Future Perfect (will have + past participle) for earlier time frames The present perfect is also used to narrate action that began in the past but is not completed and may continue or repeated in the present or future Time-orienting words and phrases (before, after, by the time, etc) can be good indicators of the need for a perfect-tense verb Verbs With Helpers There are five main forms of verbs that use helping words. Each is related to specific tenses. However, one does not have much to do with tenses, but rather with modals. Recent Past (Present Perfect)
Distant Past (Past Perfect)
Present Continuous Action (Present Progressive)
Past Continuous Action (Past Progressive)
Other Helping Verbs (Modals) Recent Past (Present Perfect) Add the word 'have/has' before the verb, which is converted to past tense. This allows the phrase to describe an action that either started in the past and is continuing in the present or happened in the recent past. Examples Chris has failed the test.
This sentence denotes that Chris failed the test in the recent past. It is implied to be a test that was just taken.

Chris has taken that SAT prep class for a month.
This sentence shows that Chris began taking the class a month ago, and is continuing to do so.

Unfortunately for Peter, he has not eaten for ten minutes.
This sentence says that Peter began to not eat ten minutes ago, and is continuing to do so. Distant Past (Past Perfect) Add the word 'had' before a past tense verb. This describes actions that are completely in the past (they begin and end in the past.) Examples Meg had jumped off a cliff.
This sentence denotes that Meg jumped off a cliff in the past, and is no longer in the process of jumping.

Dr. Elmer Hartman had promised Peter a dollar for not accusing him for his examination.
In the past, Elmer performed the action of promising the dollar. However, the act of promising itself has ended in the past.

Stewie had eaten at a buffet right before the rollercoaster ride.
Stewie ate at the buffet in the past, but is no longer eating. In fact, the process of eating was finished before the rollercoaster ride. Present Continuous Action (Present Progessive) The word 'is/are' is added to [VERB+ing] in order to denote an action that is currently ongoing or is going to happen in the future. Examples Peter is eating a taco.
Peter is currently in the process of consuming a taco. This is happening in the present.

The duck is staring at Stewie.
The duck is currently in the process of staring at Stewie. This is also happening in the present.

Tomorrow, they are driving to Chris' school.
In the future, the group of people will be driving to Chris' school. This will happen in the future. Past Continuous Action (Past Progressive) An action that was in progress in the past can be shown by using the word 'was/were' before [VERB+ing]. Examples Two weeks ago, Brian was barking at a tree.
This sentence states that two weeks ago, Brian was in the process of barking at a tree. However, Brian does not do so in the present.

Three years ago, Brian was panicking about what college would accept him.
Three years ago, Brian was in the process of panicking over colleges. But now Brian is no longer panicking.

Last night, the Griffin family was eating at a fancy Italian restaurant.
The sentence indicates that the family was at a fancy Italian restaurant last night and were in the process of eating. They are not eating at the restaurant in the present. Other Helping Verbs (Modals) [HELPER] + [VERB] must stay in the same form. Unlike others, they do not alter form to agree with the subject. Some Helping Verbs Can
Will
Shall
May
Could
Would
Should
Might
Must Examples Note that in all cases, the helping verb does NOT change form.

Brian can talk , but he is still not a human.
Stewie will take over the world if he feels like it.
Peter shall decide whether he will eat two or three pizzas.
Unfortunately, Chris may become an outcast like Meg.
Peter and Chris could go on a diet.
Stewie believes he should use his time machine.
Brian might accompany Stewie on his trip.
The Griffins must breathe oxygen to live. The End. Stewie already built the time machine Peter has stopped drinking Peter is still drinking Chris will complete his homework by tomorrow Chris will finish his homework tomorrow Questions Place the correct form of the verb in the following sentences.
Peter ____ at the soccer game last night. (pass out in past perfect)
The Griffins ____ to not tell Brian. (decide in simple past)
Meg does ____ that she is an outcast. (realize in simple present)
Stewie and Brian ____ tomorrow. (time travel in future)
A week ago, Stewie ____ one year old. (turn in past perfect) Bibliography Examples Stewie tripped on a rock yesterday and cried. I watched that show a few years ago, but I still love it very much. Ex: Once upon a time there was a TV show, it was insane but hilarious and left me weak and homeless. Ex: He jumps over the fence, but the footsteps behind him are getting closer and closer. Ex: I shall be gone by tomorrow. Ex: After everyone had arrived (past perfect), the movie started (past). Ex: By the time Lois finishes (present) her lecture, Peter has fell (present perfect) asleep. Ex: By the time I finish (present) this project, I will have lost (future perfect) all enthusiasm for English and Family Guy. Peter is thirsty and had decided to use the vending machine to buy something to drink. He really wants to drink soda, so he presses the little circular button, inserted the cash, and waits. When nothing happens for a minute, he waits. When nothing had happened for another minute, he continues waiting. Finally he had enough and kicks the vending machine in rage, and clang! A bottle comes fallen down. Peter smiled to himself as he bents down and picked up his precious drink. However, what greeted him wasn’t the familiar dark-colored carbonated drink, but a bottle of expired ice tea. Peter stared at the bottle for a minute, sighs, and drank it all in one big gulp. Find the Mistakes! Berry, Chris, Allen Brizee, and Elizabeth Angeli. "Sequence of Tenses." Purdue OWL. Purdue University, 20 July 2012. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/601/01/>.
Berry, Chris, Allen Brizee, and Elizabeth Angeli. "Verb Tense Consistency." Purdue OWL. Purdue University, 21 February 2013. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/601/04/>.
Berry, Chris, Allen Brizee, and Elizabeth Angeli. "Verb with Helpers." Purdue OWL. Purdue University, 9 November 2010. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/601/05/>.
Cliff-2. Digital image. A Fresh Chapter. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. <http://www.afreshchapter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/cliff-2.jpg>.
Be Careful Sticker. Digital image. Wordpress.com, n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. <http://reverandandys.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/be_careful_sticker-p217332759202680225tdcj_400.jpeg>.
Failed English Test. Digital image. Funnymisfits.com, n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. <http://www.funnymisfit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/failed-english-test.jpg>.
Illustration of TV Addiction. Digital image. ShutterStock.com, n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. <http://www.shutterstock.com/pic.mhtml?id=58905251>.
Halans. Digital image. The Arrival. Flickr.com, n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/halans/8348030361/>. Stewie started building a time machine will, shall, is going to, are about to, tomorrow, etc
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