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Aerobic respiration

The process of aerobic respiration, in line with the Edexcel Biology Specification. If any errors are found, please leave a comment so I can amend it.
by

Tanya Wickramage

on 31 January 2015

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Transcript of Aerobic respiration

Reduced NAD
&
FAD
from the Krebs cycle arrive and are
oxidised
in a
redox reaction
The
electrons
from the
oxidation
pass through an
electron transport chain
; each time reducing their energy level
The
protons
are pumped into the
membrane space
which produces an
electrochemical gradient
The
protons
then move into the mitochondrion
matrix
through
protein channels
as they do they collide with
ADP
and
Pi
producing
ATP
Two
electrons
from the
electron transport chain
react with the
oxygen
and
protons
to form
water
Coenzymes
,
NAD

and
FAD
are used in the respiration as
hydrogen carriers
.
Aerobic respiration
Produces
ATP
from
ADP
and an
inorganic phosphate

Glucose
is broken down into
carbon dioxide
and
water

Oxygen
is needed for this process
There are
four
enzyme controlled stages...
Glycolysis
Link reaction
Krebs cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
It involves breaking down
Glucose
(6C)
to form two molecules of
Pyruvate
(3C)
Glycolysis doesn't need oxygen, this means that its an
anaerobic process
Glucose
is
phosphoryated
by adding 2
phosphates
from 2 molecules of
ATP
Producing two molecules of
Triose phosphate
and 2 molecules of
ADP
Triose phosphate
is
oxidised
(losing hydrogen's), forming 2 molecules of
Pyruvate
NAD
collects the hydrogen ions, forming
2 reduced NAD
4 molecules of
ATP
are produced, but 2 were used up in
Ph
irst stage, so there's a net gain of 2 molecules of
ATP
Pyruvate
is
decarboxylated
- one carbon atom is removed to form CO2
NAD
is reduced - collecting hydrogen from
Pyruvate
changing it into
Acetate
Acetate
is combined with coenzyme A (CoA) to form
acetyl coenzyme A
(acetyl CoA) used in the
Krebs cycle
So.. A Quick Recap!
Glycolysis; An overview
Glycolysis
"the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid"
It is the first stage of both
aerobic
and
anaerobic
respiration
Happens in the cytoplasm!
Happens in the mitochondria!
Glycolysis
Link Reaction
Krebs Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Glycolysis -
Ph
osphorylation
Ph
irst stage...
Glucose

6C
Glycolysis -
O
xidation
Sec
O
nd stage...
2ATP
2ADP
2 x
Trisose phosphate
3C
2Pi
2 x
Trisose phosphate
3C
2 x
Pyruvate
3C
4ADP
+

4Pi
4ATP
2NAD
2 reduced NAD
Link Reaction
Pyruvate
3C
Acetate
2C
CO2
1C
NAD
reduced NAD
Coenzyme A (CoA)
Acetyl CoA
2C
Glucose

6C
2ATP
2ADP
2 x
Trisose phosphate
3C
2P
2 x
Pyruvate
3C
4ADP
+

4P
4ATP
2NAD
2 reduced NAD
Acetate
2C
CO2
1C
NAD
reduced NAD
Coenzyme A (CoA)
2 x
Pyruvate
3C
Quick Questions!
What are the names of
coenzymes
involved in Glycolysis and the Link reaction?
Where
in the cell does Glycolysis happen?
Is Glycolysis
aerobic
or
anaerobic
?
How many
ATP

molecules are used up in Glycolysis? What
stage
is this at?
Acetyl CoA
2C
How many
stages
are there in Aerobic Respiration?
Oxaloacetate
4C

The Krebs Cycle
Acetyl CoA
2C
Coenzyme A (CoA)
"the use of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water as waste products, as ADP is converted to energy-rich ATP"
CO2
1C
Citrate
6C

NAD
reduced NAD
CO2
1C
Carbon Compound
5C

Acetyl CoA
from the
Link Reaction
combines with
Oxyloacetate
forming
Citrate
CoA
then returns to the link reaction
NAD
reduced NAD
ADP
+

Pi
ATP
FAD
The
Citrate
is
decarboxylated
producing a
5C compound
reduced FAD
Hydrogen from
Citrate
is used to convert
NAD
to produce
reduced NAD
The
5C compound
is
decarboxylated
NAD
reduced NAD
The
4C compound
is
dehyrogenated
using
NAD
Substrate - level Phosphorylation
takes place between the
4C compound
and
ADP

The
4C compound
is
dehyrogenated
using
NAD
The
4C compound
is
dehyrogenated

AGAIN
using
NAD

Reduced NAD

&
Reduced FAD
NAD
FAD
e-
H+
EC
O + 2H+
H O
ADP

+

Pi
ATP
1/2
2
2
EC
EC
Quick Questions!
What are the names of
coenzymes
involved in Glycolysis and the Link reaction?
Where
in the cell does Glycolysis happen?
Is Glycolysis
aerobic
or
anaerobic
?
How many
ATP

molecules are used up in Glycolysis? What
stage
is this at?
How many
stages
are there in Aerobic Respiration?
Quick Questions..
AGAIN!
Where
in the cell does the
Krebs Cycle
occur?
How many
Carbon dioxide
molecules are made during one
Krebs Cycle
How many
Citrate
compounds are produced from one
Glucose
compound?
Oxidative Phosphorylation
"where ATP is synthesised from the energy of Chemiosmosis"
Glycolysis
Link Reaction
Krebs Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Glycolysis
Link Reaction
Krebs Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Glycolysis
Link Reaction
Krebs Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Glycolysis
Link Reaction
Krebs Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
High
H+
Concentration
ADP
+
Pi
ATP
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
H+
H+
H+
Outer Membrane
Inner Membrane
Intermembrane space
Matrix
Electron transport chain
NAD

+
FAD
Cytoplasm
H O
2
So.. A Quick Recap!
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Produces most of the
ATP
in respiration
Recycles
Reduced NAD
and
FAD
Consists of an
electron transport chain
Similar to the Glycolysis
Ph
osphorylation stage
Don't worry its the last one.
..
Oxygen
from the
blood
enters the cell
O
2
Reduced NAD
+
FAD
Full transcript