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Tyler Hooks

on 16 March 2013

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1500 - Songhai Empire flourishes: Benin at height of it's power

The Songhai had settled on both banks of the middle Niger River. They established a state in the 15th century, which unified a large part of the western Sudan and developed into a brilliant civilisation. It was ruled by the dynasty or royal family of Sonni from the thirteenth century to the late fifteenth century. Africa and African Slave Trade Timeline 1450 -1750 Tyler Hooks Period 3 Economics
1710 - 1720 A continuing surplus of wheat and wine results in a price slump with serious consequences for the wholly agrarian Cape economy.

South Africa also has the largest number of Fairtrade certified wineries in the world and the biggest single Fairtrade accredited project worldwide was recently launched at Du Toitskloof Cellar in Rawsonville in the Western Cape.

1450 -1750
The Islamic world would maintain a much stronger influence than Europe over African culture and politics.

While Africa had long been linked to the Islamic world through trade, this period saw the first significant European contact with the continent. Economics
1500- The Portuguese had copied the plantation style sugar production of their western Atlantic islands.
Such as Madeira and Sao Tome, in their New World colony of Brazil. Initially the Portuguese planters relied on Amerindian slaves to produce their crops, but as epidemics of Old World diseases ravaged the indigenous American population. Economics
1505 - Nearly all the Muslim -ruled trading states were attacked and plundered by the Portuguese.

The Portuguese had just recently rounded the southern tip of Africa in their continuing search for a sea route to India. Only Ethiopia was spared Portuguese aggression in East Africa. Economics
1540s - The center of the slave trade moved farther south, to what was dubbed the Slave Coast.

Sudden social, political, and economic changes such as these would later become the norm for Africa, as the Europeans continued their exploration - and eventual exploration- of the continent. Economics
1562 - Britain begins its slave trade in Africa.

Slave Trade increases significantly with the development of plantation colonies of the Americas. Politics
1570 - Portuguese establish colony in Angola

During the colonial history of Angola, the Portuguese sought their control to reassert their control over Angola after the Dutch occupation of the 1640s. Angola was part of Portuguese West Africa. Politics
1591 - Fall of the Songhai Empire

Attracted by its wealth, the armies of al-Mansur of Morocco overran the Songhai capital of Gao. Following the collapse of the Songhai, a number of small kingdoms strove to dominate the western Sudan. Economics
1580 - Mai Idris Alooma introduced firearms purchased from the Ottoman Turks.

At it's pinnacle, Kanem-Bornu controlled the eastern Sudan routes to Egypt, but by the middle of the 17th century, began to slowly decline. Politics
1652 - Dutch establish a colony at the Cape of Good Hope

The term "Cape of Good Hope" wasestablished by the merchant Jan van Riebeeck. As a re-provisioning station in the vicinity of the Cape Peninsula. Economics
1713 - English get the right to import slaves to Spanish Empire

Spain enjoyed a cultural golden age in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when silver and gold from American mines increasingly financed a long series of European and North African wars. Culture
1702 -Trafficking cattle and ivory at the Cape colony is firmly established.

An expedition of ivory traffickers unsuccessfully attacks AmaXhosa for cattle. They lift cattle from Khoi-Khoi instead. This attack is the first recorded evidence of encounters of colonists with the AmaXhosa. Politics
1750- Ryk Tulbagh is appointed as governor of the Cape.
During his reign from 1751 to 1771 he establishes the Colony's first library and a plant and animal collection in the gardens of the Company. Culture
1654 - 6 April, On the second anniversary of his arrival at the Cape, Van Riebeeck announces that in future this day will be observed as a prayer and Thanksgiving Day to God.

Jan van Riebeeck was the founder of the first white settlement in South Africa, and his prayer is considered a Vow, which binds all whites of southern Africa. But Jan van Riebeeck wasn’t a friend of the Boers, he was an oppressor of their ancestors

1655 -56- March, There are three slaves at the Cape, brought from Madagascar. The first slave is freed to marry a Dutch settler. Culture
1670 According to oral history the Zulu royal line is founded.

The word Zulu means 'Sky', Zulu was the name of the ancestor who founded the Zulu royal line in. Politics
1680 - Commander Simon van der Stel starts a new settlement along the Eerste River on land belonging to the Khoi-Khoi and calls it Stellenbosch. Politics
1682 Governor-General Rijckloff van Goens instructs Commander Simon van der Stel to oppose all miscegenation (mixture of races) at the Cape. Culture
1661 -31 January, Pieter Cruythoff , with fifteen men, sets off on his first expedition into the interior north of the Cape.

They reach the territory of the Namaquas, who are described as giants wrapped in cured animal skins and wearing iron and copper beadwork. Culture
1742 - Georg Schmidt baptises five Khoi-Khoi.

This causes upheaval, politically it is still not clear whether converts to Christianity from the indigenous population should be accorded equal civil and political rights as colonists. The Council of Policy therefore forbids such baptisms by Schmidt, citing the excuse that he is not an ordained minister. The Malayan–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Malacca forces, Sultanate of Johor and the Dutch East India Company, against the Portuguese Empire.
Changes in trade patterns completed Songhai’s fall. Overland trade declined as port cities north and south of the old empire became more important. The more the Africans sought to fulfill the Europeans' thirst for slaves, the more they needed guns with which to procure slaves, and to protect themselves from being captured and sold into slavery. Genadendal has a rich spiritual history and was the first mission station in southern Africa. It was founded by Georg Schmidt, a German missionary of the Moravian Church, who settled in Baviaans Kloof. The mere sign of Arabic script carries the power of Islam and the Arab/Muslim people. Angola, officially the Republic of Angola is a country in south-central Africa bordered by Namibia on the south, Democratic Republic of the Congo on the north, and Zambia on the east; its west coast is on the Atlantic Ocean with Luanda as its capital city. When van Riebeck came to the Cape he set himself to study their tribal politics and profit by their divisions and jealousies. Corporal Pieter Cruythoff, a scout of Jan van Riebeeck, founded the Riebeek Valley in 1661 The Zulu were originally a major clan in what is today Northern KwaZulu-Natal, founded ca. 1709 by Zulu kaNtombhela. In the Nguni languages, iZulu/iliZulu/liTulu means heaven, or sky. At that time, the area was occupied by many large Nguni communities and clans. The settlement of Jan van Riebeeck marks the beginning of the story of the whites in southern Africa, but the Boer nation born after. The Boer nation was born by the desire of independence of the Trekboers (migrant farmers) and the Voortrekkers (pioneers).
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