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Japanese Nationalism and Militarism

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Ciara Gillis

on 14 November 2016

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Transcript of Japanese Nationalism and Militarism

Japanese Nationalism and Militarism
The impact of nationalism and militarism on Japan's foreign policy: the origins, 1853-1930

Key Concept:
Causation
Significance
Key Questions:
Assess the origins of Japanese nationalism and militarism
Examine the reasons for Japan following an expansionist foreign policy in the 19th century
Definitions
What were the origins of Japanese nationalism and militarism?
nationalism:
when the people of a country strongly support the interests of their own nation, possibly to the detriment of the interests of other nations
militarism:
when a government or the people of a country believe that it is necessary to have a strong military in order to both defend and to promote the interests of their country
the Shogun:
Since 1192, Japan had been ruled by a feudal military dictatorship called the bakufu. Although the emperor was still officially the ruler, in practice the power lay in the hands of the Shogun who was a military dictator. Beneath the Shogun were the daimyo or feudal lords, and under the daimyo were the samurai or warriors.
The effects of the First Sino-Japanese War on nationalism and militarism
Japan after 1900
How did international events contribute to the growth of nationalism and militarism?
Why was Manchuria so important to Japan?
How did Japan benefit from the First World War?
The results of the First World War for Japan
Japanese immigration to the USA
Japan in the 1920s
How peaceful was Japan in the 1920s?
The Washington Treaty System
What problems did Japan face in 1920s?
Several factors contributed to the growth of nationalism:
the determination to transform Japan into a Western-style power and equality with Western powers
belief in its destiny as the leader of Asia
need for raw materials and to secure East Asian markets; stop other countries from doing the same
need for strategic security
the actions of the Western powers
growing support for militarism and expansionism
The Origins of Militarism and Nationalism (cont.)
link nationalism with an imperialist foreign policy as Japan took over territories
Japanese expansion depended on military action and policy decisions
Japanese nationalism started in the middle of the 19th century
the policy of the Shogun was to shield Japan from the threat of Christianity
in 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Japan
Treaty of Kanagawa
power was given to the emperor (Meiji)
modernization dissolved the feudal system
reforms
"rich country,strong military"
Sino-Japanese War
Treaty of Shimonoseki
Triple Intervention- Germany, Russia, and France forced Japan to give up the Liaodong Peninsula
Russia took the Liaodong Peninsula for itself
Germany secured control over the Shandong Province
Great Britain and France seized Chinese port cities
Military success and the anger of giving up land to western powers encouraged the growth of nationalism and militarism
military expansion increased from 1895-1905 and became the center of their government
industrial production soared
Amur River Society- patriotic society that promoted expansion on the mainland
Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902)- first military alliance between a Western and non-Western nation
Japan went to war against Russia in 1904 over their conflicting interests in Korea and Manchuria
successful in land battles and even more so for the war at sea
Russia were forced to accept the Treaty of Portsmouth
Japan gained control of Korea, South Manchuria, Port Arthur, railways in Manchuria, and south Sakhalin Island
Japan gained respect from the West and Asia; Japan became a role model
Some worried about the impact of imperialism on society because of the cost of war had an impact on the economy and there was a demand for a stronger army and fleet
Manchuria is the area of China closest to Japan
It was agriculturally rich with minerals and four times larger than Japan
Provided space for Japan's growing population
It could act as a buffer from the threat of Russia
opportunity for Japan to expand its influence
Japan demanded German territory in China and when it was ignored, Japan declared war on Germany
seized German military bases in the Shandong Peninsula and occupied Germany's South Pacific possessions
"Twenty-One Demands"
China had to agree to the Japanese occupation of the Shandong Peninsula and grant special commercial privileges in Manchuria
China could not lease any coastal territory to other powers
sharp reaction from the US, Britain, and Japanese government
demands were modified
Japan supplied goods to the Allies and to Asian markets; exports flourished
Japan became more self-sufficient
The Bolshevik Revolution
Japan sent 70,000 men to support the Whites and stayed in Russia longer than France, the US, and Britain
forced to withdraw in 1922
led to mistrust of Japan and unrest in their government
secured the former German Pacific Islands and the Shandong Peninsula
Japan bcame the main naval power in the Western Pacific
Not a full member of the Western powers because it did not establish racial equality clauses stated in the League of Nations
Japanese immigration to the US greatly increased after 1900
Worked in unskilled jobs and faced discrimination
"the yellow peril"
drove anti-Japanese laws
Japanese could not become US citizens and in some states could not own land
The 1924 Immigration Act made Japan the only country not to be allowed any quota of immigration into the US
A fragile democracy
1. A fragile democracy
2. Opposition to Shidehara's internationalism and the growing influence of the military on foreign policy
3. A growing economy
What was the role of political instability in China in encouraging Japanese nationalism before the 1930s?
Four-Power Treaty
ended the Anglo-Japanese Alliance
the US, Britain, France, and Japan were to confer if there was a crisis in the Pacific
Five-Power Naval Treaty
limited the tonnage of the US, British, French, Japanese, and Italian navies
Nine-Power Treaty
Japan, US, Britain, France, Italy, China, Portugal, Belgium, and the Netherlands were to respect China's integrity, independence, and abide by the "open-door" principles
Japan agreed to return the German concessions in Shandong seized during WWI
Sources
The Move to Global War pgs. 14-28
influeneced by the ambassador to Washington, Shidehara Kijuro, Japan adopted internationalism during the 1920s
keep good relations with the US
seek economic advancement in China
At the Washington Conference of 1921, the US replaced the Anglo-Japanese Treaty with the Four-Power Treaty
Nine-Power Treaty
Five-Power Treaty
democratic reforms were fragile
support for political parties was lost (election law violations and financial scandals)
the parties ties with big businesses in the cities made people suspicious
fear of left-wing radicalism
the Peace Prevention Law clamped down on anyone who opposed Japanese political structure
aimed at the Communist Party
the two laws extended the franchise and limited the public's right to engage in discussion
How much freedom should we allow?
Opposition to internationalism
conservative groups and the army opposed
"an Anglo-Saxon iron-ring preventing Japan from expanding abroad"
continued aggressive policy in China
conservative's dislike was confirmed with the US immigration laws
new Emperor, Hirohito, was praised with the revival of nationalism and Japan's special destiny in the world
Growing economic crisis
economic boom of the war years lasted until 1921
unemployment, industrial unrest, and strikes
large divide between the city and rural areas
the price of rice fell because of good harvests and cheap imported rice
organizations were suppressed by the police
political system was unpopular because it favored
zaibatsu
and landlords
the Stock Market Crash in 1929
repression rather than democracy
China was forcibly opened up for trade in the west
China became a semi-colonial country
loss of the Opium Wars led to economic, military, and legal gains by the European powers
technically independent, but at the mercy of other powers and treaties
Japan did not want to be left out when the Europeans began to divide up China
Japan's security depended on China and Korea
China was weak and divided even after a revolution in 1911
the main political force in 1920, was the Guomindang Nationalist Party (GMD)
rivalry between the GMD and the Communist Party of China (CCP) would cause further instability
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