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Transcript of Napoleon Bonaparte
Born in Corsica in 1769, Italian descent
Received a scholarship to a famous military school in Paris
Became lieutenant in the French army
1795-France invades Italy
- Napoleon dominates, Italy now French control
1797-Napoleon invades Egypt (to hurt G.B. trade)
-Early victories but eventually driven out
Often seen leading attacks, rather than sitting back and watching his men
Discovers Rosetta Stone
1799-Returns to France, very popular
Helped overthrow the Directory
3 person executive branch, centralized power
(Can be compared to Caesar in Ancient Rome)
Used army, nationalism, and French Rev themes to gain support and power.
1804-Declares himself Emperor of France
Engineering an Empire
1805 Battle of Austerlitz
Napoleon defeats Austria and Russia
Treaty of Tilsit- signifies Napoleon's victory
(Battle is taught at West Point today for great military strategy!)
Puts relatives in charge of conquered nations (Spain, Holland, Italy, Swiss Republic, and German states).
All territories in Europe and Russia agree to boycott British goods
Try to defeat G.B. without actually fighting them
Why was he so successful?
He could conscript citizen soldiers in unprecedented numbers.
Controlled media to appear even more successful
No one questions him as long as France prospers
Speed: Use of cavalry to outflank the enemy
Surprise: Gained territorial advantage
Decisive Action: Centralized chain of command
Quick Artillery Strikes
Russia backs out of Continental System
Conquered nations feel rise in national pride against France
Napoleon seen as only helping France rather than Europe
1. Was Napoleon a great leader or a lucky one?
2. Did Napoleon aim to accomplish the goals of the French Rev. or was he simply a conqueror?
3. Could Napoleon have ruled longer or was his downfall inevitable?
Battle at Waterloo
Congress of Vienna
1812 Napoleon invades Russia
Hopes for quick victory
= 600,000 strong
Russian army retreats deep into country
- burn land so Napoleon can't get resources from towns/land
Finally meet outside of Moscow, Napoleon barely wins battle and takes city
Napoleon must leave Russia as winter nears
Only 100,000 make it home
1814 Austrians and Russians invade Paris
Napoleon's new army loses
Napoleon is exiled to island Elba
The European powers put a weak king on the French throne.
The French people wanted Napoleon back.
Napoleon slips back into France a hero and raises an army to fight.
The Beginning of the End
Forms army in Paris
Fights Prussia, G.B. Austria in Belgian field
Napoleon's defeated and exiled to St. Helena
Goal: To restore stability and peace to Europe after years of war and revolution
Establish a balance of power in Europe
Quadruple Alliance– pledged to stick together to fight against any future revolutions
Napoleon stood at 5' 6", not as short as people think!
Safeguarded all forms of property
Universal laws despite class
Merit based pay
Men given tight control of their families
Divorce was difficult for women