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Agriculture Prezi

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by

Sonia Heckler

on 1 December 2013

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Transcript of Agriculture Prezi

A Closer Look at the Central Valley of California
40% of all land on earth has been converted for agriculture
California has the largest agriculture industry in America, and many of its innovations influence the globe.
California contains over 25 million acres of agriculture land.
What can be done to mitigate these problems?
Conventional:
Pesticides
Synthetic Fertilizers
Sewage Sludge
Irradiation
Genetically Modified Organisms
Organic:
NO Pesticides
NO Synthetic Fertilizers
NO Sewage Sludge
NO Irradiation
NO Genetically Modified Organisms
Crops:
No Pesticides
No Synthetic Fertilizers
No Sewage Sludge
No Irradiation
No Genetically Modified Organisms
Livestock:
Fed organic feed
Access to outdoors
No antibiotics or growth hormones
Multi-ingredient Food:
95% of the contents must be certified organic
Other Terms Regulated by the USDA:
Free-range:
Animals have continuous access to food, water and the outdoors.
Natural:
Only refers to meat and poultry and means that there are no artificial ingredients
Pasture-raised:
Currently has no regulations
Humane:
Currently has no regulations
What major issues are farmers facing today?
Agribusiness:
Refers to all agriculture produced on a large scale using modern technologies.
Water:
Pesticides:
Fertilizer:
The Future of Farming
Agriculture uses 70% of all fresh water consumed.

In California, this percentage jumps to 80.

Farmers are most vulnerable to changes in water supply due to climate change.

In a study conducted out of U.C. Davis, researchers found that a combination of crop diversification and implementing low volume irrigation technologies would reduce the pressure on this resource. However, the future water supply from both ground water and fresh water is still very uncertain.

More research needs to be conducted in order to understand the problem, and various solutions will need to be implemented in the future.
More than half of the fertilizer applied in the world becomes runoff.

Of all the components needed in fertilizer, the most important is nitrogen, and most of the nitrogen is artificially created.

These excess nutrients create havoc for ecosystems surrounding agricultural areas. Algae blooms, eutrophication and dead zones are just a few of the side effects associated with runoff.

More efficient application of fertilizer is one of the most important ways to prevent runoff.
Types of farming:
USDA Requirements:
Economics:
What does the agriculture industry look like?
A relatively new term refers to the ecological processes associated with agriculture land.
Agroecology:
Climate Change:
Solutions:
Conclusions:
What impact will climate change have on the agriculture industry?
30% of all greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere come from agriculture.

It is the single largest emitter of greenhouse gases.

Agriculture's impact on climate change is serious, however the changing environment is also presenting new and arduous problems for farmers.

A study looking at climate change's effects on perennial crops found that crop yields would decrease in the future. Adaptations will be necessary for this type of crop to continue to be productive.

Expansion to other areas less influenced by climate change is a possibility, but it will use numerous resources and be very expensive.
Farmers are constantly managing their crops for pests. Pests can destroy large areas of cropland very quickly.

Types of Pesticides:
Herbicides: Kill plants
Insecticides: Kill insects
Fungicides: Kill fungus, mildew and mold
Biopesticides: derived from natural materials such as plants, animals and bacteria. Considered organic and can be used on foods labeled organic.

Alternative pest control methods include crop rotation, traps and predator insects.
The agriculture industry supports a huge network of businesses and infrastructure which in turn support a large portion of California's economy.

Farmers are especially vulnerable to fluctuating prices of the goods they buy and sell. Changes in the cost of fuel, fertilizer and other essential items can influence farmers' decisions and profit margins.

Shifting energy costs are the biggest problem for farmers and will continue to be a problem in the future especially if prices continue to rise.

A complicated system of regulations and government subsidies aims to keep food prices low while allowing farmers some profit.
Another study looked at the affects of various climate models on agriculture production. Due to lack of precision in the models and variability of crop types, changes in crop yields varied widely depending on the crop and scenario.

Southern counties exhibited more variation in crop yields than northern counties.

The study also found that Carbon Dioxide fertilization did not mitigate the effects of climate change as much as was predicted.

A combination of lowering greenhouse gas emissions and managing crops differently will be necessary to prevent the long term trend of lower crop yields.

Climate change is an important issue that farmers will need to be aware of when planning future crop production.
References:
In dealing with this complex and monumental problem, many people and organizations will need to work together to come up with a solution that balances the growing populations need for food with environmental issues and constraints.

In the future, solutions need:

To research tipping points in the environment and the economy in order to understand where viable possibilities exist.

To focus on creating an agriculture system that is more resilient to abrupt changes in the economy and environment.

To conduct more research to understand the trade-offs of various methods and more clearly understand the future climate.

To search for solutions in every aspects of agriculture, industry, technology and the environment.
Agriculture has been evolving for may centuries and continues to face many challenges today.

Educating consumers and bringing together a variety of people will be an important part of dealing with the problems facing agriculture.

Inventive solutions will allow farmers to continue to feed the growing population in spite of the many environmental issues.
Charles D., 2013. Fertilize the World. National Geographic. 223: 94-111.

Foley J. A. 2010. The Other Inconvenient Truth. TED Talks.

Foley J. A., Ramankutty N., Brauman K. A., Cassidy E. S., Gerber J. S., Johnston M., Mueller N. D., O'Connell C., Ray D. K., West P. C., Balzer C., Bennett E. M., Carpenter S. R., Hill J., Monfreda C., Polasky S., Rockstrom J., Sheehan J., Siebert S., Tilman D., Zaks D. P. M. 2011. Solutions a for cultivated planet. Nature. 478: 337-342.
Lee J., De Gryze S., Six J. 2011. Effect of climate change on field crop production in California’s Central Valley. Climatic Change. 109: S335–S353.

Lobell D.B., Field C.B., Cahill K.N., Bonfils C. 2006. Impacts of future climate change on California perennial crop yields: Model projections with climate and crop uncertainties. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 141: 208–218.

Mehta V.K., Haden V.R., Joyce B.A., Purkey D.R., Jackson L.E. 2013. Irrigation demand and supply, given projections of climate and land-use change, in Yolo County, California. Agriculture Water Management. 117: 70-82.

National Organic Program. 2013. USDA website.
Starrs P. F., Goin P., 2010. Field Guide to California Agriculture. University of California Press, Berkley.

The Broad Use of Pesticides to Produce More Food. 2013. The Food Journal.
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