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Timeline of the New Testament

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John Thorpe

on 24 October 2017

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Transcript of Timeline of the New Testament

Timeline of the
New Testament

1 BC
1 AD
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Jesus Born
4 BC (we think)
John the Baptist Born
5 BC
Herod the Great Dies
3 BC
Jesus begins his public ministry
28 AD
Jesus' Passion
31 AD
Jewish Feast of Passover 7 days
40 Days Jesus appears to his disciples
Jesus ascends into heaven
10 Days to Pentecost
Pentecost:
Holy Spirit fills the disciples
the "Birthday of the Church"
Paul's missionary journeys
45-55 AD
St. Paul is beheaded in the persecution of Christians under Nero, the first major persecution of the Church.
64 AD
Jerusalem Destroyed by Rome
70 AD
... and his letters
Gospels and Letters Written
50 AD - 90 AD

The last of the Apostles writes the last book of the New Testament
95 AD

Events of the Book of Acts
Events in the Gospels
Most of Jesus' life:
Silence
Shhhhh....
Jesus in the Temple
8 AD
About 10 years:
Silence
Shhhhhh...
10 BC
31 AD
32 AD
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
30 AD
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
(Maundy)
(Good)
(Holy)
(Easter)
Last Supper
Garden of Gethsemane
Sunday
(Palm)
Jesus arrested
Jesus' 1st Trial
Jesus' 2nd Trial
Jesus 3rd Trial:
before Pontius Pilate
Jesus crucified
Jesus dies
Jesus' body taken down
Jesus laid in tomb
Tomb sealed
Jesus' body in tomb
sometime in the dark of the morning:
Jesus is alive again, leaves the tomb
3 Marys come to the tomb, see angels
1 Mary sees Jesus
Peter and John visit the empty tomb
Two Disciples go to Emmaus
Jesus appears to the disciples
Jesus moves to Capernaum, a fishing town. He begins to preach to people: "
Repent
, for the Kingdom of Heaven is
here
."
Jesus is
baptized
by John the Baptist in the
Jordan
River.
John the Baptist emerges from the desert to
preach
and
baptize
.
Jesus is
tempted
in the desert by Satan.
At the beginning, Jesus lives in
Nazareth
with his mother, Mary.
Jesus calls his disciples:
"Come, follow me."
Inner Circle
The Transfiguration
Sabbath Day (Rest)
Jesus, in death, preaches to those in the place of the dead
Jesus' Passion
The 12 "disciples" ("
learners
"
) become known as the 12 "Apostles" ("
people who are sent with a message
"
).
The people who believe the Gospel (good news) about Jesus are called "
Christians
."
Saturday
Synagogue
Sunday Church
The Church
The Early Church
spreads and grows

3 short years
Baby Jesus
(cute!)
Peter
James
John
Moses
Elijah
Jesus
Reading Scripture
Praying
Singing
{
Worship
At first the Church was all Jewish. But during this time, non-Jews (also called Gentiles) begin to believe and become Christians.
Since Jesus had predicted this, the Christians left Jerusalem. Over a million people died in the siege. Afterwards, many Jewish leaders condemned the Christians as traitors. This was the final split between Jews and Christians.
+
Animal
Sacrifice
+
Holy Communion: Jesus is the Last Sacrifice
Because Jesus died and rose again...
Jewish revolt in Judea
68 AD
Since Jews no longer had a Temple in which to offer sacrifices, Jewish worship began to consist only in Saturday Synagogue meetings.
Jewish translators compile their own Hebrew text of the Old Testament specifically to have a different bible from the Christians.
Leadership of the Jewish religion is no longer centered in Jerusalem, but in Babylon. The leaders there are called "Rabbi." They write the Talmud, a series of commentaries on the Old Testament.
5,000 Jewish soldiers and civilians are crucified along all the roads to Jerusalem.
By now, so many Gentiles (non-Jews) have become Christians that they are the majority. The Christian Church distances itself from Judaism.
How did the Church decide which books to put into the New Testament?
1. Written by a real
Apostle
(or with an Apostle's input)
2. Read by all the
churches
3. Inspired by the
Holy Spirit
Closed Canon?
Is this "Jesus" movement a whole new religion?
... but Yes
No...
At first, all the Christians are ethnically
Jewish
.
They worship the same God at the same temple with the same
scriptures
.
At first, Christians still keep all the laws of
Moses
.
The
Trinity
is new.
For God to
become
the sacrifice for sins is new.
Sunday worship with
Holy Communion
is new.
Christianity is nothing but the
logical consequences
for Judaism if Jesus actually was the Son of God.
Old Covenant
Relationship
Promise
Response
"Father"
The
Pattern
finally ends!
1. In the beginning, Good.
2. Good and Evil are in conflict.
3. Evil spreads.
4. God must intervene.
5. God re-establishes Good.
Jesus
I AM Yahweh
"New Creation"
on the inside
Jesus will
come back
in glory
Made New
Keep God's
Law
Promised Land to Jews
Forgiveness
&
Eternal Life
to all who believe.
Simply
Believe
and love one another.
Why kill this guy?
The
Pharisee
party was very strong and very angry because of Roman cruelty. When Christians preached about Jesus, the Pharisees mistook them for
Sadducees
, friends of Rome and traitors to their own people.
Why even HAVE a New Testament (Covenant)? What was wrong with the Old one?
Nothing was wrong with 1st century Judaism!
Text
Torah
Writings
Prophets
Temple

Temple for Sacrifices
Home and Synagogue
One God
- YHWH
Ethics
- right and wrong
{
{
This is a perfectly functional religion.
But a man showed up...
Yeshua
from Nazareth
What he
said
...
And what he
did
...
And how he
died
...
And what happened
after
...
Made his followers believe something
new
about Yahweh.
Jesus claimed to be the
Son
of YHWH - both God and human at the same time.
YHWH is
one
.
Jesus:
Father

Abba = "Daddy"
Spirit
of YHWH
Mentioned in the Prophets and books of Moses
Problem: How can you picture a God who has no
body
? 2nd Commandment
But Jesus has a body & a face:
He is God
incarnate
Latin - carnatus = meat, flesh
God "in the flesh."
Symbols of Three-ness
In the end, Christianity can't
explain
the Trinity, only
assert
that it is true.
Symbols of One-ness
98.3%
Jesus' Disciples
{
Hundreds of Others
The Twelve
Andrew
Philip
Thomas
Bartholomew
Simon the Zealot
Young James
Matthew
Thaddeus
Judas Iscariot
Skeptic
"Didymus"
Brother of Peter; former disciple of John
essentially a Terrorist; radical Pharisee
tax collector; Sadducee; Collaborator with Rome
Thief
Treasurer
"Doubting Thomas"
Jesus' cousin
Simon
- Spokesman
James

John

Peter
("Rocky")
brothers
"Sons of Thunder"
Theology of the Cross
"theo-" = god (Greek)
"-ology" = study, think about
Theology = thinking about God
Gave the gift of the Holy Spirit
"
Hosanna
" = God, please save us now!
Jesus came down.
God Incarnate
Purpose: to unite human nature with God
Jesus died.
Purpose: to be the perfect sacrifice for the sins of the whole world.
Jesus rose from the dead.
Glorified body and eternal life.
Jesus ascended into Heaven.
Promised to come back some day in glory with the angels to finally get rid of all evil forever.
Purpose: to conquer death both for himself and for all who believe. .
Saul was a really strict
Pharisee
. He began to hunt down these new followers of Jesus and persecute them.
Saul becomes
blind
after seeing a vision of Jesus.
A Christian named Ananias is commanded by God to
heal
Saul and
baptize
him.
Saul changes his name to
Paul
("unworthy") and becomes the greatest Christian preacher.
Priest - responsible for
worship
, especially sacrifice.
Scribe - a specialist in the
Law
of Moses
Rabbi - "
teacher
"; based in local synagogue
Religious Leaders in 1st century Judaism
But even within Judaism...
Read Malachi chapter 4. What promises is God making?
Messiah - "
anointed
" rescuer, hero, military leader, political leader
The Old Testament ends with some of God's promises
not yet fulfilled
.
The Jewish people adopt an attitude of
waiting
.
Birth stories
Jesus' ministry as an adult
Geography
Rome ruled
everything.
After Herod the Great died (approx. 4 BC), Rome allowed his sons to rule as mini-kings, but they also installed Roman governors to enforce Roman law and command the Roman military forces in the area.
Pontius Pilate
was one such governor.
Jesus' life and ministry was spent primarily in two places:
Galilee
and
Jerusalem
.
Unlike other Jews of the time, Jesus often traveled through
Samaria
and talked to people there.
John preached, "
Repent
, for the Kingdom of Heaven is
coming
."
Traitor
Phase 1: Galilee
Water into wine; 1st miracle
Preaches in Capernaum and the other towns in
Galilee
Visits Jerusalem for the Passover
The Sermon on the Mount
Phase 2: Expansion
Jesus preaches in Galilee and
Samaria
Miracles by the Sea
Feeding of the 5,000
Calms a storm
Casts out demons
Rejected by his people at
Nazareth
Visits Jerusalem for the Passover
Phase 3: Toward Jerusalem
Jesus knows he will soon be
crucified
and tells his disciples so.
Transfiguration
on Mt. Tabor
God the Father says, "This is my beloved Son: listen to him."
Jesus increasingly angers BOTH the
Pharisees
and the
Sadducees
.
Jesus raises Lazarus from the dead.
How does an ancient person BECOME a Christian?
You hear someone preaching about Jesus, maybe see a miracle, and become convinced that this Jesus was the
Messiah
and the
Son of God
, and that he proved it by
rising from the dead.
You spend three years
learning
about the faith: Catechesis. During this time you do not participate in
Holy Communion
.
You get
baptized
in a special ceremony at night, in a cave-like building, in a pool that looks like a
grave
.
Jewish worship
becomes
Christian worship
}
(same)
They're the SAME!
This is the Appian Way today: a road that the Bible says Paul used when he journeyed to Rome.
St. Paul's burial site, which you can still visit in Rome today.
St. Stephen
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