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Processes involve in Speech Production

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Roy Alimonsurin

on 29 April 2014

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Transcript of Processes involve in Speech Production

- is the process by which spoken words are selected to be produced, have their phonetics formulated and then finally are articulated by the motor system in the vocal apparatus.

Speech Production Process
What are the Factors that Affect Speech?
Consonants are those sounds which are produced by partial or complete obstruction of the air column by some parts of the speech apparatus.

Consonants are either voiced or voiceless

How are they formed?
Those that are produced with the vibration of vocal cords are called voiced consonants and vice versa.

Those vibrated in the nasal cavity are called nasals. [m] [n] [ng].

Vowels are those sounds which are produced by the vibration of air in the mouth. This cavity is bordered in front by the teeth, posteriorly by the uvula, superiorly by the hard and soft palate, and inferiorly by the tongue.

How are they formed?
There are 3 things which determine the formation of a vowel sound:

Diphthongs are those sounds which combine two vowel sounds which are blended into one within a syllable. This is done by the tongue and the lips moving quickly from one vowel position into a higher vowel position. The english diphthongs are [ay]. [oy]. [aw]

Speech is a dynamic rather than a static phenomenon
the articulators are in a state of constant movement during speech

Individual speech sounds are described in terms of target positions; ongoing speech is better thought of in terms of movement

Dynamics of Speech Production
Speech Sounds
Processes involved in Speech Production
Presented by: Mr. Roy Angelo S. Alimonsurin S.N.
1. Respiration
2. Phonation
3. Resonance
4. Articulation
Provides the energy for sound

Breathing is an aerodynamic process
a difference in air pressure is created between the thoracic cavity and the atmospheric pressure outside the body

Phonation is the rapid opening and closing of the vocal folds for sound

the vocal folds lie horizontally in the larynx
they attach anteriorly to the thyroid cartilage and posteriorly to the artynoid cartilages; they are free in the middle

the opening in the middle of the vocal folds is the GLOTTIS

The speech mechanism is a resonator -- it is like an air-filled tube (closed on one end and open at the other end)

the fundamental frequency generated at the vocal folds is resonated in the vocal tract that is now also vibrating -- the vibration of the vocal tract is the HARMONIC FREQUENCY

every body or object has its own natural frequency
those frequencies that match the vocal tract’s natural frequency will be amplified this is resonance

Serves to produce the different configurations which make up the different speech sounds

The sounds of speech are produced by the breath as it is forced out from the lungs and then modified by the vocal organs.

In this lesson the sounds of english are divided into 11 vowels, 3 diphthongs, 25 consonants.

1. 2. 3.
1. the part of the tongue on which it is formed. Front, central, or back.

These terms describe vowel position

2. the height of the jaw or the tongue, since both can be raised and lowered: high, mid, or low.

3. the shape of the lips; rounded or unrounded

a gliding monosyllabic speech sound that starts at the articulatory position for one vowel and ends in another.
How are they formed?
What is the difference?
What are the Vocal Organs?
"Our voice and diction is determined by our vocal organs. How we speak is controlled by our speech organs".

Respiration/Air System
Lungs - any various respiratory organs of vertebrates.

Diaphragm- is the huge muscle bet. Chest and abd.

Tubal System
trachea: is the air hose between the lungs and the mouth

Larynx: contains the voice box

Pharynx: found bet. Larynx and nasal cavities. The pharynx increases the force, richness and variety of sound.

Nasal Cavities: found above hard palate.

Vibration System
Vocal Folds and chords:

are ligaments attached to the muscles at the side of the larynx called voice box. when one inhales, the chords separate and allow air to pass without sound, but when air passes over the chords, they vibrate and produce sound.

Lubrication System
Salivation and Lubrication

Adequate lubrication of the speech organs and vocal organs are necessary for maintenance of phonation, resonance, and articulation.
Articulation System
Mouth: contains the speech organs organs: lips, teeth, tongue, jaw, hard palate, soft palate and uvula.

Tongue: contains flexible mass of muscles divided into four; tip, front, middle, back. The back tip articulates against teeth and upper gum. The front articulates against hard palate and the back articulates against soft palate.
Say the word YOU.

Speech Harmony
Every anatomical structure that is a contributor to the production of speech must be well functioning and free from infirmities or abberiations in order to achieve speech harmony
Speech production can be spontaneous such as when a person creates the words of a conversation, reaction such as when they name a picture or read aloud a written word, or a vocal imitation such as in speech repetition.
The quality of sound that stays loud, clear, and deep for a long time.
the act or manner of producing sound clearly and effectively in either speech or writing
a speech sound that is made by partly or completely stopping the flow of air breathed out from the mouth.
The International Phonetic Alphabet
The most accurate method of representing sounds is through the IPA. It is a universal system. It indicates pronunciations in all languages. The same symbol always stands for the same sound; and the sound is always represented by the same symbol, whether it be any language.
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