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East Timor Genocide

A facinating and formidable study into the occupation of East Timor by the Indonesian army.
by

Jonathan George

on 2 December 2010

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Transcript of East Timor Genocide

Background of Genocide Motivations behind Genocide International Intervention ndjkfnj East Timor Genocide Background Information International Involvement Overview of Genocide Interesting Facts Since the 1800s, East Timor was under the colonial rule of Portugal, and all aspects of East Timorese life was controlled by Portugal ever since.
In April 1974, a military overthrow of the fascist Portuguese government took place in Portugal. The new government of Portugal commenced to let go of all its overseas colonies, including East Timor.
This independence led to the rise of many indigenous political parties, most predominantly, the Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor.
Immediately after the independence of East Timor, and the implementation of the Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor, the neighboring Indonesian military annexed East Timor. How have ultranationalist feelings contributed to pursuit of genocide in this case? East Timor’s history is riddled with foreign nationalism; from colonialism, to imperialism, to ultranationalisism, and finally genocide. The foreign nationalistic feelings displayed towards East Timor by other nations slowly escalated over time until a form of ultranationalism erupted during the Indonesian invasion of East Timor. This extreme form of nationalism was evident among the Indonesian military who believed the East Timorese were inferior to them and commenced to kill off huge numbers of East Timorese. The feelings of superiority among Indonesians led them to think they could do what they wanted with the East Timorese people. These ultranationalist feelings accelerated from mistreatment of the East Timorese, to a brutal and lengthy genocide. Ultranationalism and violence often go hand-in-hand. What is it about ultranationalism, how it is created or how it is demonstrated, that created this situation? Ultranationalism is so extreme that it proves detrimental to the international community. People or nations with ultranationalistic feelings often are opposed to cooperation among other nations because they see themselves and their beliefs superior to others around them. This lack of cooperation can lead to violence and in worst case scenarios, genocide. In addition, ultranationalism is often created from dictatorship regimes such as fascism or communism. These forms of government believe highly in militarism which translates to the violence associated with ultranationalism. There are benefits to nationalism. Are they any positive aspects of ultranationalism? There are few benefits to ultranationalism. However, ultranationalism does unite people of one nation together, toward a particular goal. Even if this goal means the colonization of surrounding countries, or the massive consumption of non-renewable resources or even the utter obliteration of another nation, the people will be united.
Even those who are discriminated against will have a common collective identity which helps them to unite together, in the face of multiple adversaries.
For example,the Holocaust was undeniably an evil and desctructive event and a tradedgy of ultranationalism. However, if it were not for the Holocaust, the Jewish people would never have been capable of uniting and creating a soverign country for all Jews, Israel. East Timor was invaded by Indonesia on December 1975, and annexed in July 1976. These invasions led to the deaths of 150,000 East Timorese and small Chinese minorities. It was a carefully calculated military offensive by the Indonesian Army. Indonesia maintained a violent presence in East Timor for 24 years.
Indonesians were motivated to invade East Timor for the exploitation of its natural resources and the belief in ethnic superiority over the East Timorese. Specifically, Indonesia targeted healthy young men during the genocide. The number difference between the genders in East Timor were especially highlighted at the end of Indonesian occupation.
During the early stages of the genocide, international recognition was extremely scarce. In fact, the United States supplied Indonesia during the genocide. Nevertheless, the human right abuses in East Timor could never be ignored for long, due to many high-profile East Timorese pleading for international intervention.
In 1999, the UN, urged by Portugal, decided to give a referendum to the East Timorese about whether they want to regain their independence or remain under Indonesian administration. 98% of the population voted, and of that percentage, 78.5% voted for independence. However, Indonesia endeavored to massacre all those who supported East Timor sovereignty.
A massive worldwide outrage against Indonesia took place after this massacre. Under pressure from the West, Indonesia withdrew from East Timor, signaling the end of the 24 year long genocide.
East Timor’s history is riddled with foreign nationalism; from colonialism, to imperialism, to ultranationalisism, and finally genocide. The foreign nationalistic feelings displayed towards East Timor by other nations slowly escalated over time until a form of ultranationalism erupted during the Indonesian invasion of East Timor. This extreme form of nationalism was evident among the Indonesian military who believed the East Timorese were inferior to them and commenced to kill off huge numbers of East Timorese. The feelings of superiority among Indonesians led them to think they could do what they wanted with the East Timorese people. These ultranationalist feelings accelerated from mistreatment of the East Timorese, to a brutal and lengthy genocide. THE END
by Jonathan George and Erik Peterson http://www.gendercide.org/case_timor.html http://www.enotes.com/genocide-encyclopedia/east-timor http://www.yale.edu/gsp/east_timor/ www.yale.edu/gsp/east_timor/ www.enotes.com/genocide-encyclopedia/east-timor
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