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Obesity

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by

Nihal Sharaf El-Din

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Obesity

Overweight and obesity
are defined as abnormal
or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health.

BMI
Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. It is defined as a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of his height in meters (kg/m2).
Facts About Obesity
1) Overweight and obesity are defined as "abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health"
2) More than 1.4 billion adults were overweight in 2008, and more than half a billion obese
3) Globally, over 40 million preschool children were overweight in 2008
4) Overweight and obesity are linked to more deaths worldwide than underweight
5) For an individual, obesity is usually the result of an imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended
6) Supportive environments and communities are fundamental in shaping people’s choices and preventing obesity
7) Children's choices, diet and physical activity habits are influenced by their surrounding environment
8) Eating a healthy diet can help prevent obesity
9) Regular physical activity helps maintain a healthy body
10) Curbing the global obesity epidemic requires a population-based multisectoral, multi-disciplinary, and culturally relevant approach
Obesity in Adolescents
Research on obesity among in adolescents
In Mexico :
(10537)
In Egypt :
(1502)
7% of boys
&
18%
of girls
were over-
weight.
18% of boys
&
21% of girls
were overweight.
6% of boys
&
8% of girls
were obese.
11% of boys
&
9% of girls
were obese.
Causes of Obesity
Genetics
predisposition toward obesity can be inherited
Metabolic factors
Metabolic & hormonal factors play a role in determining weight gain.
Recent studies show that levels of ghrelin, a peptide hormone known to regulate appetite, and other peptides in the stomach, play a role in triggering hunger and producing a feeling of fullness (satiety).
Socioeconomic factors
There is a strong relationship between economic status and obesity, especially among women
Lifestyle choices
an increased intake of energy-dense foods that are high in fat; and
an increase in physical inactivity due to the increasingly sedentary nature of many forms of work, changing modes of transportation, and increasing urbanization.
Health consequences of obesity
Diabetes
Obesity is the major cause of type 2 diabetes. Obesity can cause resistance to insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar.
Heart disease
Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) occurs more often in obese people.
Coronary artery disease is also more prevalent because fatty deposits build up in arteries that supply the heart.
Joint problems,
including osteoarthritis
Obesity can affect the knees and hips because of the stress placed on the joints by extra weight
Sleep apnea &
respiratory problems
Sleep apnea, which causes people to stop breathing for brief periods, interrupts sleep throughout the night and causes sleepiness during the day
Cancer
In women, being overweight contributes to an increased risk for a variety of cancers including breast, colon, gallbladder, and uterus. Men who are overweight have a higher risk of colon and prostate cancers.
Metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome consists of six major components: abdominal obesity, elevated blood cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance with or without glucose intolerance, elevation of certain blood components that indicate inflammation, and elevation of certain clotting factors in the blood
How can overweight and obesity be reduced?

At the individual level, people can:

1) limit energy intake from total fats and
sugars
2) increase consumption of fruit and
vegetables, as well as legumes, whole
grains and nuts
3) engage in regular physical activity
(60 minutes a day for children and
150 minutes per week for adults).
At the societal level it is important to:
1) support individuals in following the previous recommendations , through sustained political commitment and the collaboration of many public and private stakeholders.

2) make regular physical activity and healthier dietary choices available, affordable and easily accessible to all - especially the poorest individuals.
Done By :-
1) Mervat Mahmoud
2) Dana Shaker
3) Alaa Abdelrahman
4) Nihal Gamal
5) Yasser Hamdy
Full transcript