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Unit 1 Presentation Monica Period 3

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Monica G

on 19 September 2012

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Transcript of Unit 1 Presentation Monica Period 3

Unit 1 Lesson 1, What Is Science? In this lesson students will understand that scientific investigations involve the collection of relevant empirical evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses, predictions, explanations and models to make sense of the collected evidence. Also to know the difference between scientific and pseudoscientific ideas. Vocabulary Science- The systematic study of natural events and conditions. Empirical evidence- Observations, measurements, and data that scientists gather to support an explanation. Pseudoscience- Beliefs or practices that are mistakenly believed to be based on scientific principles Character Witness The Three Main Type of Science Biology- The study of living things Geology- The study of living things Physical Science- The study of energy and nonliving matter Scientists Scientists must use scientific evidence and it must be proven by other scientist. It cannot be based on opinion and/or feelings. All scientists must share their results with others. All scientific ideas must be testable and reproducible “Give me an explanation … ” A scientific explanation provides reasons for how a phenomenon takes place; they are always based on empirical evidence. So, they are able to be tested, science is not able to test an explanation if it does not contain information supporting that opinion or belief. Scientific Explanation Lesson 1 Scientist start forming an explanation by examining all of the data and empirical evidence they have. After they have their evidence they think about the evidence and develop a reasonable explanation. Then other scientist test out the evidence and see if its true. Scientific explanations must explain all available evidence. If new evidence is discovered, it is compared to the explanation.If the explanation cannot explain the new evidence, then it may be modified. How is a scientific explanation
evaluated? First, study the empirical evidence. Decide if it supports the explanation.
Second, decide if the explanation is logical and agrees with your other observations.
Third, identify tests you can do to support the idea.
Finally, evaluate the explanation. Scientists make careful observations, and they use their senses or scientific tools to make observations. Scientists are very curious about the world and how it works. For example they make many experiments from the smallest thing like an atom to the biggest thing like the universe. Scientists are creative. They use their imaginations to come up with explanations, experiments, and solutions. What is involved in scientific work? Scientists are logical, sceptical, and objective. They use evidence and careful reasoning to develop explanations. They do not immediately accept claims. Instead, they ask questions and evaluate the claims. Also they set aside their feelings and opinions when they evaluate ideas. Both science and pseudoscience can address topics from the natural world, but pseudoscience can look like science, but it is not science. Pseudoscientific claims can sound logical. They may use technical language or scientific-sounding terms.Both science and pseudoscience claim to be supported by empirical evidence. How is pseudoscience similar to and
different from science? Unlike science, pseudoscience does not use accepted scientific methods. The evidence supporting pseudoscientific claims may be vague, biased, or inaccurate. Most of the time peudoscientific cannot be testable. Scientists offer evidence for their explanations. In contrast, pseudoscientists often ask skeptics to prove their claims false. Pseudoscientists may say that any claim that has not been proven false must be true. This is faulty logic. Lesson 2, Scientific Knowledge Florida Benchmark Florida Benchmark In this lesson students will be able to use phrases such as “results support” or “fail to support” in science, understand that science does not offer conclusive ‘proof’ of a knowledge claim. Also students will analyze the methods used to develop a scientific explanation as seen in different fields of science, and explain why theories may be modified but are rarely unnecessary. Students will also record information related to a topic, including visual aids to organize and record information. Lesson 2 Method Acting How do scientists choose their
methods? Scientists plan their investigations to address a specific problem or question. Their goal is to come up with a scientific explanation. Each problem or question is unique and so requires a unique method and the correct tools. When choosing their methods, scientists rely on the tools available, but most of the times scientist may not use the tools they need because the tools might be expensive or they may not exist. Scientist need to be creative on the ways they use their tools. They can also use household items and everyday life things as tools. Tools are useful only if the scientists using them can interpret the data they provide. The Tools Experiments & Fieldwork According to what it is investigated, scientists choose to do experiments or fieldwork. When scientists are doing experiments they control different variables under specific conditions in a laboratory. Usually, physicists and chemists do a lot of experiments in a laboratory. For example, a physicists would study a new type of bacteria in a lab with a microscope. Scientists doing fieldwork make observations of what is around them. They watch, observe, and try to make sense of what they see. Instead of controlling variables, they try to agree on what variables are at work and how they relate to each other. For example, when scientist are trying to find out how an animal might react in a new environment they would just observer and take notes on what they see and/or hear. A large part of doing fieldwork is coming to understand the variables that exist. Biologists and geologists generally do a lot of fieldwork. Sometimes, a scientist will do fieldwork and then take a specimen back to a laboratory to do more testing. Well, Prove It! How do scientific theories become
accepted? A good scientific theory is one that is supported by most of the evidence
and can account for new observations as they occur. Some theories are
quickly accepted; others are not. When time passes new scientist try to
find other evidence so the theory might change, or it was incomplete.
Good theories can change but are rarely rejected. True or False The most reliable scientific information is found in professional science journals, but it may not be easy to understand, but it does have more details. You should be cautious of accepting scientific explanations from advertisers or anyone trying to sell you something. When you assess any scientific claim, ask yourself if it makes sense logically and whether the results support it. Science attempts to provide an explanation that agrees with the results of observation and testing. Lesson 3, Scientific Investigation Florida Benchmark In this lesson students will….
Define a problem using appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigations of various types, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.
Design and conduct a study using repeated trials and replication.
Explain how hypotheses are valuable if they lead to further investigations, even if they turn out not to be supported by the data.
Analyze the methods used to develop a scientific explanation as seen in different fields of science.
Understand that scientific investigations involve the collection of relevant empirical evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses, predictions, explanations and models to make sense of the collected evidence.
The student will record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, legends) related to a topic, including visual aids to organize and record information and include a list of sources used. Vocabulary Experiment: An organized procedure to study something under controlled conditions.
Observation: The process of obtaining information by using the senses.
Hypothesis: A testable idea or explanation that leads to scientific investigation.
Independent variable: The factor that is deliberately manipulated.
Dependent variable: Changes as a result of manipulation of one or more independent variables.
Data: Information gathered by observation or experimentation that can be used in calculating or reasoning. Lesson 3 Testing, Testing, 1, 2, 3 What are some parts that make up scientific investigations? Scientists investigate the natural world through experiments and observations. Scientific investigations may also involve the use of models. A model is a representation of an object or system. Scientist use models because it helps them get a better explanation on how this might work in the future, or to study the things far away. They might also use it to study the things that are too small for the human eyes to see. Hypothesis A scientist may think of a hypothesis after making observations, after reading findings from other scientists’ investigations, or from finding information from journals, websites, books ect. If an investigation does not support a hypothesis, it is still useful. The information from the investigation can help scientists form a better hypothesis. Scientists may go through many cycles of testing and analysis before they arrive at a hypothesis that is supported. Variables, Data, and Observations A variable is any factor that can change in a scientific investigation.
Data may be anything that a scientist perceive through the senses or detects using instruments. Scientists analyze data to determine the relationship between the independent and dependent variables in an investigation. After that they draw conclusions about whether the data support the investigation’s hypothesis.
During their investigations, scientists record all their observations, setup, and procedures so that they will not forget anything.

Anything a scientist notices through his senses or using instrument is Data. This is analyzed to verify the link between the variables, independent and dependent, during an investigation. In order for anything not be forgotten all that is researched is recorded. Many Methods What are some scientific methods? Scientist do not always use the same steps in every investigation
or use the steps in the same order. They might repeat a few steps,
or the experiment.
Scientific method-
1. Defining a Problem
2. Forming a Hypothesis
3. Planning an Investigation
4. Identifying Variables
5. Collecting and Organizing Data
6. Interpreting Data and Analyzing information
7. Drawing and Defending Conclusions Life Lessons How are scientific methods used? Scientific investigations provide evidence that can either support or contradict a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be replaced by a new or modified hypothesis after further investigation. Scientific methods are used in physical, life, and earth sciences. Scientists may use models when studying things that are very large, small, or complex High Quality What are some characteristics of good
scientific investigations? Scientific observations should be well documented and have supporting
evidence. In an experiment, the variables should be controlled as much as
possible. Experiments should be repeated multiple times by the original
investigator, so you can get the right conclusion. All scientific investigations
should be replicated by scientists. Before publishing a study, scientific
journals ask other scientists to review the article. This is called peer review. Lesson 4, Representing Data Florida Benchmark Vocabulary In this lesson students will….
Analyze the methods used to develop a scientific explanation as seen in different fields
of science.
Understand that scientific investigations involve the collection of relevant empirical
evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising
hypotheses, predictions, explanations and models to make sense of the collected evidence.
Select models useful in relating the results of their own investigations.
Construct and analyze tables, graphs, and equations to describe linear functions.
The student will record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, legends)
related to a topic, including visual aids to organize and record information, as appropriate,
and attribute sources of information. Independent variable- which is the variable that is deliberately manipulated in an investigation.
Dependent variable- which is the variable that changes as a result of manipulation of the independent variable.
Model- a representation of an object or a process that allows scientists to study something in greater detail. Lesson 4 Modeling Data with Graphs How do scientist make sense of data? Every different type of scientific investigations involve data collection. Data are the facts, figures, and other evidence scientist collect when they make an investigation Data tables often have two columns. Column one has the independent variable, and column two has the dependent variable. Scientist Organize, Graph, and Analyze the Data Scientists often analyze data for patterns or trends by constructing graphs of the data. The type of graph they construct depends upon the data they collected and what they want to show. A scatter plot is a graph with points plotted to show a possible relationship between two sets of data. In a scatter plot there is the horizontal x-axis. It usually represents the independent variable. The vertical y-axis usually represents the dependent variable. To show the general relationship between the two variables, a “line of best fit” may be used. Scientists use different types of graphs to show different types of information about data. There's a bar graph, a circle graph, a line graph ext. What do graphs show? More Graphing! When you graph data, you can identify what the pattern, or trend, of the data is. A trend shows the relationship between the two variables studied in the experiment. Graphs make it easy to tell if something is increasing, decreasing, or staying the same. In some cases, a line can be used to show the trend of data on a graph. If the relationship between the independent and dependent variables can be shown with a straight line, the graph is called a linear graph. It shows that the rate of change of the dependent variable with respect to the independent variable is constant. Throw Me a Curve! What kinds of patterns can be shown
using graphs? A graph in which the relationship between the variables cannot be shown with a straight line is called a nonlinear graph. A graph of an inverse relationship is a smooth curve that becomes nearly vertical and horizontal at opposite ends. Scientists use many different kinds of models. They use it because they would like to get a visual thing that can help explain something better. Some are physical models, such as maps and globes. Others are mathematical models, including equations and simulations of movement. A model is a representation of an object or a process that allows scientists to study something in greater detail. A model that is too simple or too complicated may not be useful.Scientists select models based on how much the models can explain. How do scientists select models? The Perfect Model Lesson 5 Science and Society Florida Benchmark In this lesson students will...

Explain that science is one of the processes that can be used to inform decision making at the community, state, national, and international levels.

Explain how political, social, and economic concerns can affect science, and vice versa. Lesson 5 Science has led to lifesaving discoveries and has taught us to protect our resources, too. For example decision-makers use scientific information to help them make laws. Some decisions affect more than one country and have to be made on the international level. In this case, nations adhere to agreed-upon rules. Science gives a country’s representatives the data they need to talk about and make decisions about these types of matters. In what areas does science help us
make decisions? Water, water everywhere! The direction of science is affected by many things, including political, societal, and economic concerns. Science, in turn, affects politics, society, and the economy. Some decisions affect more than one country and have to be made on the international level. In this case, nations adhere to agreed-upon rules. Science gives a country’s representatives the data they need to talk about and make decisions about these types of matters. How can science and politics affect
each other? High Goals Some people question the value of certain scientific projects. These people argue that our resources should be spent on solving more urgent problems. Others point out that even these scientific projects have benefited humanity. Science is influenced by societal needs and economics. If society sees no value in certain research, scientists may not get funding for the research. People may not buy or use new technologies if they do not think they are useful. How do science, society, and economics
interact? Big Help! Scientists look for ways to meet the needs of society. As scientists explore new things, they gain new knowledge that may improve upon or even challenge existing knowledge. Science and economics affect each other. Science can be expensive, and priorities must be set on how to spend money on science. Conversely, science makes improvements that allow people to live longer, make more money, and put more money back into the economy.
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