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Chapter 28-30: Challenges of Nation Building

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Joseph Floyd

on 24 November 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 28-30: Challenges of Nation Building

Chapter 29-30: Challenges of Nation Building
Uhuru: The Struggle for Independence in Africa
The Colonial Context
Coffee plantation, Kenya 1936
Cocoa plantation, Gold Coast, 1946
Improved transportation, communication, medical care
Colonies dependent on export crops-peanuts in Senegal, Gambia, cotton in Egypt, coffee in Kenya, palm oil, cocoa in Gold Coast
Profits go to Europeans, Indian, Lebanese merchants
Only South Africa, Rhodesia, French Algeria, with white populations, develop industries
The Rise of Nationalism
Political organizations for African rights first emerge after World War I
After World War II, seek independence
Mau Mau rebellion among the Kikuyu of Kenya (1951-54)
Afrikaner National Party creates apartheid
Algerian War begins in 1954; French settlers (pied noirs) oppose independence
Gold Coast (Ghana) first black African nation to win independence in 1957
French colonies accept independence within French Community
By late 1960s, only Portuguese Angola, Mozambique remain colonies
The Era of Independence
East Africa: Perils of Socialism and Capitalism
In Tanzania, African socialism under President Julius Nyerere, peasants resettled in ujamaa collectives
Peasant resistance, failed harvests, Nyrere resigns in 1985
Kenya develops capitalist economy, based on commercial agriculture, tourism
Landlessness, unemployment, high population growth, 77% rural, urban slums
Ethnic tensions, conflicts between farmers, herders
Experiments in Communism
Nairobi hotel, 1970s
Downtown Lagos, Nigeria
In 1970s, several African nations adopt Soviet-style Communism
Emperor Hailie Selassie overthrown in 1974, Marxist military regime under Gen. Mengitsu Haile, Red Terror purges
Droughts, famine, rebellion in Eritrea
Civil wars follow independence of Angola, Mozambique, Communist governments control cities, South Africa-backed rebels in rural areas
West Africa: Dictatorship and Underdevelopment
Dream and Reality: Political and Economic Conditions in Independent Africa
Kwame Nkrumah attempts to industrialize Ghana, overthrown in 1966
Nigerian Civil War (1966-70), Igbo President overthrown, breakaway Republic of Biafra, 2 million deaths
Oil boom, transition to democracy by 1977, military coups
Cote d'Ivoire experiences economic growth exporting cacao, coffee
Ivorian miracle in 1970s, ends with drop in commodity prices
Ethnic, religious violence in 2000s
A New Hope: Africa in the 1990s and 2000s
Central Africa: Cradle of Conflict
Transition to Democracy
Tensions in the Desert: The Rise of Radical Islam in Africa
South Africa: The Struggle Against Apartheid
Dependent Development
Continuity and Change in African societies
African Immigration
Crescent of Conflict
Nasser and Arab Nationalism
Arab-Israeli Conflict
Revolution in Iran
Conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan
South Asia
Poverty and Pluralism in South Asia
Office park and slum in Bangaluru (Bangalore), India
Independent India
Pakistan: The Land of the Pure
British police officer with Mau Mau suspects
Kwame Nkrumah declares Ghana's independence
Nigeria independence day, October 1960
African states neutral in Cold War, foreign aid from both superpowers
Nations weakened by corrupt governments, urban/rural divide, regional/ethnic rivalries
Population boom by 1980s, overfarming leads to desertification, famines
AIDS epidemic
Three-quarters of population subsistence farmers, growth of cities with large slums
Little Tigers
Japan: Asian Giant
Southeast Asia
South Korea
Walk Through Dharavi, Mumbai, the largest slum in Asia
King Farouk of Egypt overthrown in 1952, military coup led by Col. Gamal Abdul Nasser
Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal in 1956, British-French-Israelis seize canal, condemned by US, USSR
Aid from Soviet Union
United Arab Republic (1958-61) with Syria
Support Algerian rebels, Palestinian Liberation Organization
Nasser imposes blockade against Israeli
Arab nations defeated in Six-Day War (June 1967), Israel occupies West Bank, Gaza
Yom Kippur/Ramadan War, October 1973, early Arab successes, Israel receives US aid, reconquers territories
Camp David Accords in 1978, Anwar al-Sadat assassinated
Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982, Palestinian uprising (Intifada)
Peace accord in 1993, collapse 2000, growth of Hamas (Muslim Brotherhood)
Israeli Tank, 1973
Bombing Gaza
Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran attempts social and economic reform
Landlessness, unemployment lead to unrest, Shia cleric Ayatollah Khomeini leads opposition
Revolution in 1979, Shah overthrown, Islamic republic founded
Militants seize US Embassy
War with Iraq (1980-88)
In 1990, Iraqi forces occupy Kuwait, decisively defeated in First Persian Gulf War
End of Soviet occupation of Afghanistan followed by civil war, Taliban seize power in 1996
After September 11 attacks, US-led coalition overthrows Taliban, US invasion of Iraq in 2003
Society and Culture in the Middle East
Iraq-Iran War footage
The Littlest Tigers: Hong Kong and Singapore
Explaining the East Asian Miracle
Islamic Revival
Hamas founder Sheikh Yassin
Supporters of Pakistani Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam mourning death of Osama bin Laden
Efforts to modernize, secularize Islam in Turkey, Iran, Egypt
Support for modernization limited to elites
Radical clerics criticize corruption, immorality, Western influence
Growth of Islamic fundamentalism after Iranian Revolution
Growth of Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt
Islamic AK Party wins elections in Turkey in 2007
Economies of the Middle East: Oil and Sand
Oil-rich Arab states of Persian Gulf with small populations have high standards of living, import labor
Arab states with little oil remain poor
Islam used to justify socialism and capitalism
Efforts at land reform in Egypt, Iraq, Iran
Agricultural productivity suffers from lack of water
Dubai, UAE
South Asia workers, Dubai
The Role of Women
Modernistis criticize female seculsion, veiling, polygamy as pre-Islamic folk traditions, nationalist regimes enact reforms
Attacks by religious conservatives on growing role of women
Except for Orthodox communities, women in Israel enjoy equality, Golda Meir served as Prime Minister from 1969-74
Nigerian soldiers, Biafra War
1966 coup, Ghana
Ivory Coast President Félix Houphouët-Boigny
Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of Congress Party, first Prime Minister
Advocates industrialization
Democratic socialism influenced by British Labour Party
Neutral in Cold War, close relations with the Soviet Union, wars with Pakistan
Daughter Indira Gandhi (1966-77, 80-84) nationalized banks, loans to peasants, low-cost housing, seeks to curb population growth
Sikhs in Punjab demand independence, Indian army attacks Golden Temple, Gandhi assassinated by Sikh bodyguards
14 million people were displaced in India-Pakistan partition
The End of the Colonial Era
In the Shadow of the Cold War
On the Road to Political Reform
A Region in Flux
By 1960s, experiments in democracy end
Unstable military regime in South Vietnam, falls in 1975
Military regimes in Burma, Thailand, Cambodia
Maoist Khmer Rouge seize power in 1975
President Ferdinand Marcos becomes dictator in Philippines
Indonesian Pres. Sukarno establishes guided democracy in 1959
General Suharto seizes power in 1967
Ferdinand Marcos overthrown in Philippines in 1986
Fragile democracy in Malaysia, Thailand
Devastating 1997 Asian financial crisis
Protests in Indonesia, Suharto resigns, election of Megawati Sukarnoputri, daughter of Sukarno, independence for East Timor, ethnic, religious violence
Urban migration challenges traditional attitudes and values
Increased economic, educational opportunities for women
Inroads of Western culture, growth of fundamentalist Islam
High rates of economic growth, financial crises
South Korean President Syngman Ree (1948-60) anti-communist strongman
Demonstrations in 1960, military coup in 1961
Land reform, industrialization
South Korea emerges as manufacturing power, exports cars, consumer electronics
Chaebol (business conglomerates) Daewoo, Samsung, LG, Hyundai
Democratic elections in 1989, restrictions on chaebols, negotiations with communist North Korea
Chinese Nationalists establish government-in-exile in Taiwan
Relatively high level of development, U.S. aid
Transition to democracy after 1975
Movement for independent Republic of Taiwan
South Korean president Lee Myung bak visiting Hyundai plant in India
Bank Machines, Singapore
Japan, Four Tigers enjoy "First World" standards of living
Belief that Confucian work ethic has contributed to regions success
Inputs of capital and technology from the U.S., Great Britain
Sub-Saharan Africa enjoys high rates of growth, emerging consumer economy in 2010s
Driven by high prices for minerals, new investment, primarily China
Concerns over young population, high unemployment
Cairo, Egypt
10,230,000 people
First multi-party elections in 1990s
Nelson Mandela resigns as President of South Africa in 1999, model for other African rulers
Democratic elections in Ghana in 1996
Free elections in Nigeria in 2015, opposition defeat ruling party
In 2000, riots between Christians, Muslims in northern Nigeria after Muslim officials apply Shari'a law
Election of Goodluck Jonathan, a Christian, in 2011
Islamic militants Boko Haram kill over 5,000 civilians between 2009-14
Civil war in Libya spreads to West African Sahel, al-Qaeda militants seize northern Mali, defeated by French intervention
Apartheid government restricts blacks to "Bantustans"
African National Congress wages guerilla war, by 1980s international opposition
In 1990, F.W. de Klerk releases Nelson Mandela
Democratic elections in 1993, Mandela elected
1996 constitution declares South Africa multiracial state
Rivalry between ANC, Zulu Inkatha Party
India is world's largest democracy, ethnic, linguistic, religious divisions
Religious tensions between Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs
Industrial growth between 1950-70, slows with rising price of oil
Economic reforms in 1990s, Information Technology sector
Growing divide between rich and poor
Green Revolution increases food production
Discrimination against low-case Indians, untouchables, outlawed but persists
Some prominent in business, technology
Legal equality for women, child marriage, veiling, sati continue in rural areas
One-quarter of female children in India die before age 15
Middle-class women find opportunities in managerial, professional positions
South Asian Literature
Salman Rushdie inspired by Latin American magical realism, Bollywood, Hollywood
Midnight's Children
(1980) protagonist embodies India
The Satanic Verses
(1988) aroused Muslim anger
Anita Desai describes struggles of Indian women
Europeans introduce Western education, focus on vocational training
African countries establish state-run schools, lack funding, trained teachers
Affluent upper-class in cities, three-quarters of population live in rural areas, shantytowns of landless migrants
Opportunities for upper, middle-class women in cities
Feminism has had little impact on rural areas
Students at University of Ghana
In the Middle East, all aspects of society and culture are intertwined with religion
Inequalities between classes and countries, conflicts between modernizers, Islamic fundamentalists, the weakness of the Arab world in the face of Israel
Varieties of Government: The Politics of Islam
King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia with their wives
Syrian rebels tear down posters of Bashar and Hafez al-Assad
The Global Economy
After World War II Europeans reluctantly realized that the end result of colonial rule in Africa would be self-government, if not independence, British, French introduce legislative reforms
Triskati University shootings, Jakarta, May 1998
Nairobi, Kenya
Ujamaa village collective, Tanzania
Victims of famine in Biafra, 1969
Africa's population boom
Copper mine, Zambia
Port of Takoradi, near Accra, Ghana
Suharto, 1967
Fall of Saigon, 1975
Gangnam district, Seoul
The Economy
Japanese post-war economic miracle
Centralized zaibatsu replaced by more informal keireitsu
Destruction of industry in World War II enables modernization of Japanese industry
Shift to export trade begins in 1960s, electronics manufacturing (radio, TV, video games), by 1980s Japan second-largest economy
Economic recession beginning in 1990
Transistor Radio
Japanese-made TVs
A Society in Transition
Strong work ethic, social pressures youth subcultures
Fewer opportunities for women in management
Aging population-highest % of population over age 65
Post-war authors reject Americanization
Manga graphic novels focus on social change, relationships between humans and technology
The Transformation of Modern Japan
Allied administration under Gen. Douglas MacArthur demilitarizes Japan, reforms Japanese government, breaks up business cartels
U.S. aid during 1950s, policies to protect, promote domestic industries, exporting power in 1960s, 70s 80s
Liberal Democratic party dominates government
Criticism of government role in economy, Japanese business less competitive
Tokyo, 1945
Ginza District, 1960
Shibuya Crossin, 2015
Japanese businessmen
Harajuku fashions
In the decades following World War II, Japan grew to become the second-largest economy in the world
Akira (1988)
Under PM Lee Kuan-yew (1959-90), Singapore becomes major port, financial center
British colony of Hong Kong grows to over 6 million people by 1960s
Tourism, manufacturing, finance
Returned to China 1997, democratic political system, pro-democracy protests in 2014
Models for state capitalism in People's Republic of China
Hong Kong, 1980s
Singapore, 1980s
Taipei 101 tower
By the 1980s, several smaller states, known as the Little Tigers, follow Japanese example to become economic powerhouses
Seoul, 1988 Olympics
Vast disparities in education and wealth, effects of a brutal form of colonial domination
Hopes of democracy gave way to weak nation-states based on colonial borders, persistent poverty, underdevelopment, ethnic, religious conflicts.
Banliueu (public housing) near Paris
African Renaissance Monument, Dakar
MC Solaar, Paradisiaque (1997)
Tamer Nafar, DAM, Shadia Mansour, Born Here (2006)
Subliminal, International
Tel-Aviv, Israel
Israeli settlement West Bank
Assassination of Indira Gandhi, October 31, 1984
Manufacturing televisions, Japan, early 1970s
In 1946, U.S. grants independence to Philippines, military presence
Britain grants independence to Burma (1948), Malaya in 1957
Dutch, French attempt to reassert colonial rule
Nationalist rebellion in Indonesia by Sukarno, U.S. pressures Dutch to recognize independence
U.S. aid French against Vietnamese communists
Declaration of Indonesian independence by Sukarno, August 1945
Israeli Arab housing projects, Lod, Israeli
Security Checkpoint, West Bank
Garbage Collectors, West Bank
Survivors of bombing, Gaza
Pakistan united by religion, divided by geography (West, East Pakistan)
In 1956 Pakistan became Islamic republic
West Pakistani-dominated military regime of Gen. Ayub Khan (1958-69)
Protests in East Pakistan, Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971
India aids Bangladeshi rebels
Gen. Muhammad Zia ul-Haq (1977-88) implements Sharia law
In 1988 Benanzir Bhutto elected, overthrown in military coup in 1990, survived 95' coup
Global Culture in the Digital Age
The Environmental Crisis
Advent of electronic mail in mid-1990s
Cellphones have replaced landlines
Internet communication circumvents government, corporate restrictions
Production, distribution and sale of goods on global scale
New global economic order reflected in multinational corporation
In 2000, 71% of corporations based in U.S., Germany, Japan
As of 2015, 7 billion people
Wealthy nations consume more resources, poorer nations have faster-growing populations
Increased demands on Earth's resources
Desertificaiton, drought due to overuse of fresh water
Global climate change caused by carbon dioxide, erratic weather patterns
Draining of Aral Sea
Smog in Beijing
Forest fire in California
Conflict between Tutsi, Hutu in Rwanda and Burundi
Civil war in 1994, Rwanda Genocide
Hutu refugees flee to Zaire, dictator Mobutu Sesse-Seko overthrown in First Congo War
Second Congo War begins in 1998, bloodiest war in African history, 9 countries, 20 armed groups
5.4 million deaths
Rwanda genocide
Congolese soldiers
Congo War Refugees
No separation of religion and politics in Islam
Absolute monarchy in Saudi Arabia, strict Islamic law, since 9-11 crackdown on Islamic fundamentalists
Bahrain, Kuwait, Jordan have constitutional monarchies
Charismatic strongmen, Nasser in Egypt, Muamamr Qaddafi in Libya, Saddam Hussein in Iraq, Hafez and Bashar al-Asad in Syria
Western style democracy associated with Israel
350,000 "boat people" in 2014, 3.500 deaths at sea
Over 10 million Africans in Europe (4.5 million in France, 2 million in Britain, 1 million in Italy)
3 million Africans in U.S., wealthier and better-educated than Africans in Europe
Immigrants from Ghana in the Bronx, NY
African boat people, near Sicily
Nation-building faces many obstacles in Middle East
Fall of Ottoman Empire, end of the Caliphate left a political vacuum

Amidst religious, ethnic and economic divisions, the British Raj became the nations of South Asia
Bengali rebels
Ayub Khan
Benazir Bhutto
Africa remains the poorest continent, but since 2000 has seen high rates of economic growth
Lagos, Nigeria
13,400,000 people
Nelson and Winnie Mandela in Soweto township 1990
Boko Haram militants
Iwa-K (Indonesia), Bebas (Free), 1994)
Fall of Saigon, South Vietnam, April 30, 1975
India has the world's largest film industry
Midnights Children (2012) based on Salman Rushdie's novel
Turkey: Between East and West
Turkey joins NATO in 1956, conflicts with Greece over Cyprus in 1970s
Transition to democracy, military coups
Military guardian of Turkish secular state, Islamist opposition parties
Scenes from the 1980 Turkish coup
Taliban in Kabul, 1996
Toppling statue of Saddam Hussein, Baghdad, 2003
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1960
United Arab Republic
Persepolis (2007)
Apartheid-era signs
D.F. Malan, Prime Minister 1948-54, architect of Apartheid
Nelson Mandela sentenced to life in prison June 1964
Mumbai, India
12,478,000 people
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
6,900,000 people

Muammar Gaddafi ruler of Libya (1969-2011)
Amazonian Guard
DJ Panjabi, Mundian To Bach Ke (Beware of the Boys), Bhangra remix, 1998
A battleground of the Cold War, Southeast Asia has experienced uneven development, with impressive economic growth, but growing inequality.
Indonesian soldiers in East Timor, 1975
Skulls of Khmer Rouge victims
Cambodian refugees
Khmer Rouge seizing Phnom Phem, Cambodia
East Timor Famine Victims
Epilogue: A Global Civilization
Computer users in India and Brazil
McDonalds in Saudi Arabia
Young people, Jakarta
Motorbike traffic, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
Indian Muslims protest Satanic Verses
Salman Rushdie
Gamal Abdel Nasser on the Muslim Brotherhood, 1959
Jawaharlal Nehru releasing dove, 1954
Indira Gandhi
Golden Temple, Punjab
Portrait of Philippines President Ferdinand Marcos (1965-86) and his family. His wife Imelda Marcos owned over 3,000 pairs of shoes
Corazon Aquino sworn in as President, Philippines
South Asian Diaspora
Old Diaspora "coolies" to sugar and rubber plantations, Indian merchants in East Africa
Low-wage workers in Persian Gulf oil states
New Diaspora to U.S., Canada, Great Britain, many highly-skilled workers
Hindu and Sikh religious festivals, New Jersey and London
Anti-Sikh Riots in Delhi
Demonstrations in Indonesia
Communist rally in Addis Ababa
Ethiopian famine, 1984
Nigerian elections, 2015
Pre-1967 border
Nigeria's film industry, Nollywood, is second-biggest movie industry in terms of movies made, after India
Highlife music, E.T. Mensah, Ghana Freedom (1957)
Kuwait Oil fires, 1991
In Zimbabwe, seizures of white-owned commercial farmland lead to famine, economic collapse
Price of bread $10 million Zimbabwe dollars
Scavenging for food
Whites in Rhodesia declare independence in 1965, preventing transition to black majority rule
Japanese author Yukio Mishima committed suicide after failed a coup attempt in 1970
Israel a multi-party democracy
Law of Return (1950) grants citizenship to all Jews
Tensions between Ashkenazi (European), Sephardic/Mizrahi (Middle Eastern), Orthodox and secular communities
Labor-Zionist parties, led by David Ben-Gurion, Israel's first Prime Minister
Likud party led by Menachem Begin, supported by Middle Eastern Jews
Israel: Democracy and Colonialism
Israeli Prime Ministers Menachem Begin, Yitzakh Rabin
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