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Transcript of Participial Phrases
João Paulo Rezende
Maria Emília Saramago Integrated Skills II - Prof. Valdeni Reis A phrase is a group of words that doesn't express a complete thought.
> HELP! Clause In order to have a clause, we need a subject and a verb put together.
> THE STUDENTS WORKED HARD. A participle is a verb form used as an adjective or as an adverb.
There are two kinds of participles: -ING participles (called present participles) > She got here driving her car. (talking about the past)
> She will get here driving her car. (talking about the future) -ED participle (called past participle) > The house looked abandoned.
The past participle has irregular forms. It can also end -EN, -T, -D:
taken, bought, sold It's a traditional grammatical term for a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun:
> Waiting is unpleasant for everyone. WARNING!!! Be carefull! Do not confuse participle and gerund!
> Stealing is a crime.
> She will get here by driving her car.
The difference between gerunds and participles is that a participles works as an adverb or an adjective. The gerund works as a noun. Participial Phrases Participial phrases are used to add information, modifying nouns and pronouns. They can be formed by reducing adjective clauses and adverb clauses. Because of that, they are also called reduced clauses. Reduced Clauses Participial phrases can be formed by reducing adjective and adverb clauses.
> A pedestrian who had been hit by a speeding taxi was lying in the street.
> A pedestrian hit by a speeding taxi was lying in the street.
> Because he took the shots requested by the government, Tom could travel abroad.
> Tooking the shots requested by the government, Tom could travel abroad. Punctuation Participial phrases can be restrictive (necessary) or nonrestrictive (unnecessary).
> Everyone traveling with us must use a red shirt.
> Cheering wildly as the game ended, the crowd would not leave the stadium.
A nonrestrictive phrase is separeted from the rest of the sentence by commas. A restrictive phrase does not have commas. General Forms -ed Participial Phrases -Is the past participle of a verb (regular or irregular);
-Past and present tense;
-Passive Voice. SIMPLE PRESENT
The girl in the hospital, visited everyday, is getting better.
Ana's father, stolen last month, got murdered by a thief. General Forms -ing Participial Phrases This general form do not indicate the present tense. May come from present, past and future tenses. SIMPLE PRESENT
Mary's gift, having the smallest package, was the last to be opened.
Flowers sprouting must to be watered frequently.
The friend inviting me to play tennis is a professional player.
Attending to NAILI, students got better grades in the test.
Women having baby should take rubella vaccine. Perfect Form Participial Phrases The perfect forms of the participial phrases work to place an action in a time before the one established by the main clause. Both types, present and past perfect, can be changed into perfect participles. The lines of the song, which have amused children for ages, are not being changed. (Present Perfect)
The lines of the song, having amused children for ages, are not being changed. (Participial Phrase)
Paul, who had heard Ringo playing before, was against the new drummer.
Having heard Ringo playing before, Paul was against the new drummer.
(Participial Phrase) > In the sentences above is possible to see that the actions in the participial phrases occur before the one in the main clause. Perfect Form In order to change present and past perfect into participial phrases,
always remember to:
• Delete Relative Pronoun (who, which or that)
• Change verb into participle
• Use the same comma rule Writing Style Participial Phrases are very useful if you want to improve your writing style. They can make your text less repetitive and more dynamic.
Instead of using relative pronouns too much, you may reduce the sentences to participial phrases.
In order to make your writing more attractive and dynamic use the participial phrases to open some sentences.
Make your text more concise, combining short sentences. Writing Style The man was reading a book. He was sitting on a broken bench.
Improved forms using participial phrases:
> The man, sitting on a broken bench, was reading a book.
> Sitting on a broken bench, the man was reading a book. Reduced Adverb Clauses An Adverb Clause can be reduced to form –ing and –ed phrases.
If a participial phrase from a reduced adverb clause comes in front or in the middle of the independent clause, we must use the commas.
If the reduced adverb clause comes after the independent clause, we do not use commas.
T o reduce an adverb clause we must follow some steps: Reduced Adverb Clauses 01. Make sure that the subject of the adverb clause and the subject of the independent clause are the same.
> While the science discovers new answers to our problems, it creates questions that we never thought.
02. Delete the subject of the adverb clause. If necessary, move it to the subject position in the independent clause.
03. Change the adverb clause to the appropriate participle:
> While discovering new answers to our problems, science creates questions that we never thought.
04. Delete or retain the subordinator according to the following rules: Reduced Adverb Clauses |A| Retain before and since when its a time subordinator:
> Before make my new book, I should finish the first one.
> Before making my new book, I should finish the first one.
|B| Delete as when its a time subordinator:
> As I finished my test, I started to enjoy my vacation.
> Finishing my test, I started to enjoy my vacation.
|C| Delete all reason subordinators - because, since and as:
> Because he saw the car of his dreams, Paul can not think in anything else.
> Seeing the car of his dreams, Paul can not think in anything else.
|D| Retain after, while, and when if the participial phrase follows the independent clause. When the phrase is in another position, you may either retain or delete these subordinators:
> She became a new person after she gave birth to her daughter.
> She became a new person after giving birth to her daughter. PARTICIPLE + OTHER WORDS KEEP IN MIND THAT A PHRASE IS JUST A GROUP OF WORD AND IT DOESN'T EXPRESS A FULL MEANING! Reduced Adjective Clauses 01. Delete the relative pronouns (who, which, or that)
02. Change the verb to a participle
03. Keep the same punctuation
04. If the participial phrase is negative, put the word not at the beggining A new student, who didn't know to what classroom he should go, was lost in the main hall.
A new student, not knowing to what classroom he should go, was lost in the main hall. The judge that was threatened by the mafia condemned the defendant.
The judge threatened by the mafia condemned the defendant. Bibliography OSHIMA, Alice. Writing Academic English
SWAN, Michael. Pratical English Usage
DECAPUA, Andrea. Grammar for Teachers: A Guide to American English for Native and Non-Native Speakers. Springer, 2008
http://grammar.about.com **ACTIVITY** Practicing law is a tricky job that requires dedication, hard work and impartiality. Practicing law is a tricky job requiring dedication, hard work and impartiality. The number of people who aim a public job is increasing. The number of people aiming a public job is increasing. Nowadays, is common to find industries that care for the environment. Nowadays, is common to find industries caring for the environment. Because they've tried very hard to complete the task, their effort was recognized. Trying very hard to complete the task, their effort was recognized. **ACTIVITY** All the manuscripts that are not scanned by the end of the month will probably be lost. All the manuscripts not scanned by the end of the month will probably be lost. The athletes, who were exhausted after the competition, got a well deserved break back home. The athletes, exhausted after the competition, got a well deserved break back home. Everyone who wants to skip that subject must take the oral and written exams. Everyone wanting to skip that subject must take the oral and written exams. The soccer team, which was playing amazingly, made their fans very happy. The soccer team, playing amazingly, made their fans very happy. **ACTIVITY** The young politician, who had lost of enemies, was murdered last the night. The young politician, having lost of enemies, was murdered last night. As they didn’t know of the dangers of that beach, the group went surfing early in the morning. Not knowing of the dangers of that beach, the group went surfing early in the morning. If the kids were accepted in the university, they would have to move from their parents’ house. If accepted in the university, the kids would have to move from their parents’ house. A little tip for you! An easy way to help you differentiate between the two structures is trying to substitute the -ing word or expression for 'it'. If the gerund or gerund phrase is functioning as a noun, as in sentence (a1), you can substitute 'it' and the sentence is still grammatical, as in sentence (a2): (a1) Doing crossword puzzles relaxes Daniel.
(a2) It relaxes Daniel. If the participle is part of a participial phrase and is functioning as an adjective, substituting it for 'it' will end up in a nonsense sentence. Compare sentences (b1) and (b2) (b1) Waiting for takeoff, the flight attendants passed out magazines.
(a2) *It, the flight attendants passed out magazines. How to?