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An Eye for an Eye

Introduction and Analysis of Novel Neuroprosthetic Discovery

Ren Dixon

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of An Eye for an Eye

Mechanical Evaluation:
Planned Commercial Version establishes Working Vision "AMDF: American Macular Degeneration Foundation - Macula with Drusen." AMDF: American Macular Degeneration Foundation - Macula with Drusen. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://www.macular.org/drusen.html>.
Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Patient Manual. Sylmar: Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. 2012. Web.
Brust, John C. M. Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Neurology. New York: Lange Medical /McGraw-Hill, 2006: 30-31, 72, 171, 181, 472, 502. Print.
Buss, Stephanie. "From Visual Plasticity to the Bionic Eye." Medical Review: Einstein Journal of Biology and Medicine (2011): 10-12. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Sept. 2012.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/>.
Chittal, Mayuresh U. "Bionic Eye: A Review." International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 8.1 (2011): 149-51. Academic Search Complete. Web. 27 Sept. 2012.
"Choroidal Neovascularization." Choroidal Neovascularization Information (Ocular Trauma). N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://www.naturaleyecare.com/eye-conditions/choroidal-neovascularization/>.
Dowling, J. "Current and Future Prospects for Optoelectronic Retinal Prostheses." Eye: Cambridge Ophthalmology Symposium (2009): 1999-2005. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Sept. 2012.
Ebenholtz, Sheldon M. Oculomotor Systems and Perception. New York: Cambridge UP, 2001. Print.
"The Eye: Structure, Focusing, Rod and Cone Cells." The Eye: Structure, Focusing, Rod and Cone Cells. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://scienceaid.co.uk/biology/humans/eye.html>.
"EZEyes Zeaxanthin." EZEyes Zeaxanthin. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ezeyes.info/Zeaxanthin.aspx>.
Fitzpatrick, David, and Richard D. Mooney, eds. "Sensation and Sensory Processing." Neuroscience. 5th ed. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, 2012. 229-56. Print. “An Eye for an Eye”:
References Cell Replacement for Retinal Transplants
Four Criteria for successful transplantation
Target: Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Royo and Quay 1959
Introduction of fetal rat retina into a mother’s eye
“Stem Cell”-like approach
Silverman Method
Improved by Seiler et al (2012) to remove excessive fluid
Confirmed by preference based testing Molecular Analysis:
Current Therapeutic Research Dominant Genetic Disorder
Appears in heterogeneous combinations
Rhodopsin Gene
Regulates metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, and cell signaling
“Mis-folding” protein hypothesis
Altered signals induce premature transduction and decreased structural ability Molecular Analysis:
Retinitis Pigmentosa Rationale: Prevalence of retinal degeneration in visually impaired populations, and its role in innate and accident related ocular dysfunctions.

Research Inquiry: Why does the newly publicized bionic eye specifically target retinal degeneration, instead of replacement of the entire ocular organ? Eye Openers:
Statistical Evidence for Treatment Development 2012 – product of a visually stimulated and dependent society
Insist on inflicting our eyes with harmful neural activities, without the security of a cure
3.4 million people over the age of 40 are visually impaired or legally blind
1.5 million people suffer from AMD
1 million people diagnosed with RP Eye Openers:
Statistical Evidence for Treatment Development Eryn Dixon
Neurophysiology 315
Dr. Brian Kelley
December 3, 2012 Introduction and Analysis of the "Bionic Eye" “An Eye for an Eye” Greenberg, Rob, MD, PhD, Anne-Marie Ripley, and Lyndon da Cruz, MD, PhD. Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System. Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. HDE #H110002. 28 September. 2012. Web.
Kaiser. “Welcome to BIOL 230: The Grapes of Staph Home Page." Welcome to BIOL 230: The Grapes of Staph Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/>.
Krebs, Mark P., David C. Holden, Parth Joshi, Charles L. Clark III, Andrew H. Lee, and Shalesh Kaushal. "Molecular Mechanisms of Rhodopsin Retinitis Pigmentosa and the Efficacy of Pharmacological Rescue." Journal of Molecular Biology 395.5 (2010): 1063-078. Print.
Liu, Wentai, Wolfgang Fink, Mark Tarbell, and Mohanasankar Sivaprakasam. “Image Processing and Interface for Retinal Visual Prostheses.” National Science Foundation Grant EEC-0310723 (2005): 2927-2930. Web.
"Lutein Information Bureau." Home - Lutein Information Bureau. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://www.luteininfo.com/>.
"Macular Degeneration Partnership." Macular Degeneration Partnership. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://www.amd.org/>.
“New Technology May Bring Sight to the Blind.” Interview by Jonathon LaPook. CBS Evening News with Scott Pelley. Columbia Broadcasting System, 28 Sept. 2012. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <cbsnews.com>.
Oyster, Clyde W. The Human Eye: Structure and Function. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1999. Print.
Seiler, Magdalene J., and Robert B. Aramant. "Cell Replacement and Visual Restoration by Retinal Sheet Transplants." Elsevier: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Reeve-Irvine Research Center, 2012. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <www.elsevier.com/locate/prer>.
Stell, Dr. Bill. "Foundation Fighting Blindness." Foundation Fighting Blindness. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://www.blindness.org/>.
"Vision." - Healthy People. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectiveslist.aspx?topicId=42>.
Zanke, Brent, Steven Hawken, Ronald Carter, and David Chow. "A Genetic Approach to Stratification of Risk for Age-related Macular Degeneration." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 13 Jan. 2010. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. “An Eye for an Eye”:
References 250 new patients in the United States
Emotional Dysfunction
Preservation, enhancement, and restoration
20/1600 to 20/80
Door/window Detection
Sidewalk and object Tracking
Large Letter Font Recognition Clinical Applications:
Quality of Life Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
AMD: Most inheritable human multigenic disease
Affected genes localized to complement system
Complement System
Enzyme Cascade
Classical vs. Alternative Pathways
CFH and C3
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Wet AMD (chroidal neovascularization)
Dry AMD (atrophy of RPE and photoreceptors) Molecular Analysis:
Age-related Macular Degeneration A Closer Look:
Investigation of Primary Visual Center Single Metal Version (2007-2009)
Dual Metal Version (2009)
5 year lifespan
Common Surgical Procedures
Only 55 electrodes constitutive during implantation
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