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The 6 Rs

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by

Ben Stanbury

on 6 January 2014

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Transcript of The 6 Rs

REDUCING
Reducing:
Materials
Manufacturing processes
Packaging involved
Energy used to make the product
Waste
What are they?
5. Rethink
THE 6 Rs
1. Reduce
By Ben Stanbury 10J
2. Reuse
3. Recycle
4. Refuse
6. Repair
What is it?
Minimising the amount of material and energy used during the whole of a product's life cycle.
The stages a new product goes through, from conception to eventual decomposition.
Life cycle
Key term
Ways of reducing?
We can reduce the amount of materials used making the product better for the environment and making it cheaper to make:
MATERIALS USED:
We can reduce the packaging on a product to use up less material
PACKAGING
Example of bad packaging
There is no need to individually wrap these bananas, it is a waste of material.
Example of good packaging
All that the packaging is, is a paper bag, not much material used yet it still shows what the product is.
ie. simplifying the product
Metal, wood, glue
Many materials:
1 material:
Single piece of metal wire
Tweaks to the manufacturing process can reduce energy and materials used in making the products.
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
MOULDS
Lego bricks have mainly the same design so by using a mould they can be mass produced more efficiently
JIGS
Jigs could save time and energy as you could bend parts of a product that would be mass produced to all exactly the same angle.
Renewable energy
- fossil fuels are running out, using renewable energy sources would save
fossil fuels
.
ENERGY USED
Manufacturing processes use energy to create the products. There are many ways to reduce energy involved in this process:
Used in making many vital products such as plastic and fuel for cars.
Fossil fuels also give of pollution so by generating '
green energy
' the impact on the environment is reduced.
Natural energy sources include:
Geothermal
Wind
Tidal
Solar
Hydro
Wave
ENERGY USED
Transport
Getting your materials from nearer sources would reduce the amount of energy going into making the product.
It would also reduce the carbon footprint and C02 emissions as less fuel would be used to transport the materials/products.
We can all reduce on the waste we create ourselves:
WASTE
Don't buy more food than you need.
This would save money and stop food being wasted.
Switch off light bulbs when not in a room
Saves electricity, saving energy and reduces the amount of fossil fuels wasted.
Which parts are not needed?
Do we need as much material?
Can we simplify the product?
Questions to consider when designing a product.
REUSING
WHAT IS IT?
To take an existing product that's become waste and use the material or parts for another purpose, without processing it.
There are 2 ways:
WAYS OF REUSING
Reusing for the same purpose.
Using for a different purpose.
Examples:
Old clothes - could be given to someone else
Bag for life - reusable bag which can be used multiple times. Also
REDUCES
plastic used.
Refillable plastic bottle - can be used instead of buying bottles of water every time you need water.
FOR THE SAME PURPOSE
USING FOR A DIFFERENT PURPOSE
Examples:
Glass jars - can be reused for the same purpose or for a different purpose: eg. photo frames.

Plastic bottles - can be reused for a light shade.

For art - this gorilla is made entirely from old coat hangers:
QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER WHEN DESIGNING A PRODUCT
examples
Could the product have another use?
Could its parts be used in other products?
Does it have another valuable use without processing it?
RECYCLING
WHAT IS IT?
Take an existing product that has become waste and re process the material for use in a new product.
WAYS OF RECYCLING
There are 3 main types of recycling:
PRIMARY RECYCLING
WHAT IS IT
Primary recycling is much like reusing, it is just reusing the item again.
It is also when a product is recycled and made into the same product.
EXAMPLES
Charity shops recycle a variety of items from clothes, products, electronic items etc.

Ebay - sells many used items given to other people to be reused
SECONDARY / PHYSICAL RECYCLING
Primary
Secondary / Physical
Tertiary / Chemical
WHAT IS IT?
The process in which waste materials are recycled into different types of products.
TERTIARY / CHEMICAL RECYCLING
WHAT IS IT?
Tertiary recycling involves breaking down something into its raw materials before processing it into a real product.
EXAMPLE
Pencils made out of recycled CD cases
WHY RECYCLE?
It reduces the need for new resources.
Less material needs to be disposed of in landfill.
The energy required to recycle materials are usually much less than the energy needed to make new materials.
RECYCLABLE MATERIALS
Glass
Aluminum
Wood
Card
Paper
Steel
Some plastic eg.polystyrene
Many more...
QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER WHEN DESIGNING A PRODUCT
How easy is it to take apart/recycle?
How can the parts be used again?
How much energy is used to reprocess the parts?
There are 2 types:
(Reusing)
EXAMPLE
(Recycling into the same product)
STAGES OF A PRODUCTS LIFE CYCLE:
Conception and design
Making
Use (including maintenance, if needed)
Disposal
Built-in Obsolescence
Most products have a lifetime. Built-in Obsolescence is when the product is planned to last for a certain period of time.

When trying to reduce, the product may be designed to have a longer lifetime with a longer planned obsolescence.
Types of obsolescence:
FUNCTION - the existing product becomes out of date as new and improved products become available.
QUALITY - the product is designed to wear out / break down.
DESIRABILITY - the product is designed to at some point go out of fashion.
REFUSE
WHAT IS IT?
Not accepting a product at all if you don't need it or it's environmental or socially unsustainable?
recycling logo
WAYS OF REFUSING
Quantity of materials used
Packaging
Materials
Working efficiency
Globalization (conditions of manufacture)
You could refuse to buy a product if it has excess material that is not necessary and is a waste.
Lots of excessive material
More simple, sustainable designed chair
Excessive material
Packaging
However, sometimes more material is used to decrease the risk of breaking if dropped. In the long term this would overall use less material as the products lifetime would increase resulting in fewer replacements.
Packaging is used to protect the product from damage during transportation to the buyer.

Some people may refuse to buy products if the packaging is excessive to make the product aesthetically pleasing.
eg. the case for the game is much bigger than the game itself meaning it is using more material than necessary.
MATERIALS
Some materials we could refuse to buy products made of:
Plastic
- made using oil - non renewable source. We could refuse to buy products made of plastic unless the plastic is essential for the product. Alternatives: natural sources eg. plants.
Metal
- made from metal ore. Extracting this rock causes damage to the environment and pollution. Alternatives: buy product made from recycled metal as this limits the amount metal extracted and reduces energy used - recycling metal uses 25% of the energy needed to extract new metal.
Products containing toxic chemicals
- eg. white paper: the colour of the paper may be changed to make it white using poisonous chemicals eg. DIOXINS. We could refuse to buy this paper and buy more eco-friendly paper instead.
iron quarry - damaging to the environment.
Here is a song to help remember the first 3 Rs
But there are 3 more Rs:
Refuse
Rethink
Repair
WORKING EFFICIENCY
Working efficiency
-amount of energy or fuel needed to operate the product during its usable life.
People could refuse to buy products where similar products have a better working efficiency. eg. people may choose a car based on its fuel economy - more miles per gallon the better.
GLOBALISATION
Companies may decide to manufacture their products in a 'low cost' country where they can pay the workers less, manufacturing for cheaper and making more profit.
They can make more profit as the workers are willing to work longer hours for less pay than people would in the UK for example.
The ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS where this factory is located may be of a lower standard resulting in more pollution.
People may refuse to buy a product for ethical reasons - due to the poor working conditions for the workers and the extra pollution given off. However, they may have to sacrifice cheaper prices as buying a product from a company where people are payed more means they need to charge more to make profit.
QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER WHEN DESIGNING A PRODUCT
Is the product really necessary
Is it going to last?
Is it from a sustainable source?
It is fair trade?
Is is recyclable?
RETHINK
WHAT IS IT?
Rethinking our current lifestyles and the way we design and make products?
WAYS OF RETHINKING:
Rethinking design
Rethinking product life
Rethinking disposal
DESIGN
Just because the products we have have been designed that way, that doesn't mean they couldn't be designed
differently
.

Designers can ask questions about existing product features in order to re design them.
QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT EACH FEATURE OF A PRODUCT:
Purpose of feature?
Necessity of feature?
Properties a feature needs?
Material to achieve those properties?
How could feature be easier to manufacture?
Packaging needed for a product?
DESIGNING PRODUCTS WITH MANY FUNCTIONS
Designers may want to do this to reduce materials needed and to reduce energy needed in manufacturing / disposal.
PRODUCT LIFE
Designers could rethink how energy is used during a products lifetime. eg - light bulb
energy efficient light bulb - replaces old ones.
Designer could consider alternative sources of energy - solar powered calculator instead of a battery powered one.
DISPOSAL
As products are eventually thrown away once past its usable life, designers could
rethink
the different parts of the product so they can be used again.
This would help reduce the need for resources as the product won't simply be replaced by another.
If materials are going to end up in landfill, as well as recycling, designers could experiment with
biodegradable
materials.

These materials decompose very quickly so they are not damaging to the environment. eg.
plastic cup
biodegradable cup
QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER WHEN DESIGNING A PRODUCT
How can the product do the job better?
Is it energy efficient? Could it be more?
Can the product be designed so it can be recycled, reused etc.
REPAIR
WHAT IS IT?
When a product breaks down or doesn't function properly, fix it instead of throwing it away.
WAYS OF REPAIRING
Disassembly - taking apart the product
You may need to repair by taking the product apart to get to the part needing repairing - this may affect the design process:
WHY REPAIR
Repairing uses less energy and materials than remaking the whole product.
eg. a shoe cost less and is easier to repair than buying a new product.
Companies may see repair as a bad thing as it reduces their profit as they make less sales from selling new products.
However they could purposely design a product to be able to be repaired - they can sell replacement parts.
temporary joining techniques could be used to make it easier to take apart eg. screws
permanent joining methods eg. adhesives, nails, welding etc would be avoided.
product could include an access panel / door so any mechanisms inside are easy to get to.
product could be designed in a series of modules - if something goes wrong a module can be replaced quickly and easily - means that it could be repaired by someone with less skill.
however - this may use more resources than just replacing a part.
DELIBERATELY DESIGNING PRODUCT THAT ARE HARD TO TAKE APART
This is used to stop untrained people from interfering with the product and possibly break/damage it.
eg. a mobile phone is hard to take apart but people who know can do it and still perform repairs.
UNREPAIRABLE PRODUCTS
Many low cost items are not designed for repair. This is because is is more expensive to repair the product than replace it.
eg. digital watch - expensive, specialist equipment to examine and repair product - cheaper to replace.
PRODUCTS TOO DANGEROUS TO REPAIR
Cooling system in old fridge - contains chemicals hazardous to the environment.
Broken electrical plug - may not be as strong if repaired - more chance it could break again and cause injury.
Electrical circuits - could be dangerous if they contain electrical charge in capacitors.
Which parts are replaceable?
How easy are the parts to repair?
Which parts of my product are going to sometime fail/break?
QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER WHEN DESIGNING A PRODUCT
EXAMPLE
Glass bottle to glass jar
Full transcript