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Transcript of Renaissance
The word "Renaissance" is a French word meaning rebirth.
The study of ancient text gave many a philosophical outlook which emphasized human reason.
Artist began using perspective and realism in their art.
Politicians and theologians attempted to improve the human condition.
These efforts are credited with marking the beginning of the modern age. Works Cited
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Important Contributors Literature 1. William Shakespeare
2. John Donne
3. Benjamin Jonson
4. Christopher Marlowe Art 1. Michelangelo
2. Leonardo da Vinci
4. Raphael Music 1. Vincenzo Galilei
2. John Dowland
3. William Byrd
4. Thomas Tallis Philosophers 1. Rene Descartes
2. Francis Bacon
3. Nicolaus Copernicus
4. Thomas More Mathematics and Science 1. Isaac Newton
2. Galileo Galilei
3. John Napier
4. Johannes Kepler Exploration 1. Christopher Columbus
2. Hernán Cortés
3. John Cabot
4. Vasco da Gama Renaissance Literature Renaissance Art Renaissance Music Renaissance Philosophy Renaissance Math and Science Renaissance Exploration European literature is thought to have originated in Italy sometime in the 14th century and by the 17th century, it had begun to spread across Europe. It is during this time that European literature reaches it's peak in popularity. Many claim this is due to Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the printing press. This invention encouraged authors of the time to write in their local language, rather than Greek or Latin. This allowed for the reading audience to grow, thus spreading Renaissance ideas William Shakespeare John Donne Benjamin Jonson Christopher Marlowe Michelangelo Leonardo da Vinci Donatello Raphael Vincenzo Galilei John Dowland William Byrd Thomas Tallis Christopher Columbus Hernán Cortés John Cabot Vasco da Gama Isaac Newton Galileo Galilei John Napier Johannes Kepler Rene Descartes Francis Bacon Nicolaus Copernicus Thomas More Shakespeare was born in April 23 of 1564 in the town of Stratford. Not much is known about his youth except that he attended The Stratford Grammar School. The next recorded even of his was his marriage to Anne Hathaway in 1582. They had 3 children, Susannna and a set of twins, Judith and Hamnet. 1589 is where Shakespeare is first recognized as an actor, playwright, and poet. After only a few years he joined the most successful acting group in London, Lord Chamberlain's Men. They eventually gained enough wealth to start their own theater just South of London. This theater became known as The Globe. Shakespeare wrote plays until his death in 1616 on his 52nd birthday. Donne was born in 1572 in London, England. He was born to a Roman Catholic family and was very passionate about his faith. He used this passion in most of his writing and centered his poetry around his faith. He attended both Cambridge and Oxford in his early teen years. He did not receive a degree from either school because he would have been forced to subscribe to the Thirty-nine Articles, the doctorine that defined Anglicanism. Due to this, he decided to study law at Lincoln's Inn at the age of 20. He spent the rest of his life as Dean of Saint Paul's Cathedral, where he became a very influential presence due to his charasmatic and optimistic preachings. He died in London in 1631. Benjamin Jonson was born June 11, 1572. He attended Westminster School and worked with his father laying bricks. His father was not pleased with his work so he ended up joining the English Army and served the majority of his service in Flanders. He returned home in 1592 and married Anne Lewis on November 14, 1594. In 1597 Jonson was put in prison due to his involvement in the work "The Isle of Dogs." This declared as a rebellious and disrespectful work toward the king and he was therefore imprisoned. A year later he was convicted for the murder of a fellow act who he had shot and killed in a duel. Christopher Marlowe was born in Canterbury on February 6th, 1564. He is considered the father of English Tragedy and dramatic blank verse. Marlowe started attending the Kings School in Canterbury in 1578. He then enrolled at Cambridge as one of Archbishop Parker's Scholars. He then matriculated at Benet College where he attained a B.A. in 1584 and a M.A. three to four years later. He was killed in a fight with a man at Deptford because of a disagreement in religious views near the end of May in 1593. Renaissance Art is traced back to late 13th and early 14th century Italy. Artist began to adopt the practices of classic Roman cultures. These artist began an attempt to revive Roman values, languages, and intellectual traditions after a period of stagnation after the fall of the Roman Empire. The idea of Realism in art began to emerge as artists focused more on the realistic representation of the human body. Most art of this time was focused around religious images and many were used in churches and cathedrals for religious practices and rituals. Most were painted and used as altarpieces for the Catholic mass and the majority of these works were donated by members of the mass Michaelangelo was born to a rather wealthy family of bankers from Caprese, Italy on March 6, 1475. He began his career as an apprentice painter and eventually began studying at sculpture gardens owned by the Medici family. He was recognized as a very talented artist even in his own time due to his virtuosic artistry. Hismost well known works are David, Pieta, and The Last Judgment, a piece of the ceiling painting on Rome's Sistine Chapel. He lived the majority of his life in Rome where he died in 1564 at the age of 88. Da Vinci was born on April 15, 1452 Vinci, Italy. Early on in life, da Vinci was interested in the laws of science and nature. At the age of 14, da Vinci became an apprentice to the artist Verrocchio. He spent 6 years learning skills such as metalworking, leather arts, carpentry, drawing and sculpting. At the age of 20, he was considered a master artist by the Guild of Saint Luke. Shortly after he began his own workshop, where created many great works such as The Last Supper and The Mona Lisa. Da Vinci died in Amboise, France, on May 2, 1519. Donatello was born in Florence, Italy around 1386. He received education from the home of the Martellis, who were closely tied to the wealthy Medici family. He is thought to have learned his first lessons of art from a local goldsmith during his stay. In 1403, he began an apprenticeship with metal smith and sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti. Ghiberti was commissioned with creating the bronze doors for the Baptistery of the Florence Cathedral, where Donatello was called on to assist him. In 1408, Donatello created his first life-size marble sculpture named David. Da Vinci died on December 13, 1466, in Florence. Raphael was born on April 6, 1483, in Urbino, Italy. He began painting a series of Madonnas in Florence in 1504 and ended in 1507. Two years later he moved to Rome and painted the Stanza della Segnatura which was located in the Palace of the Vatican. In 1514, Raphael was hired as chief architect by Pope Julius II. He also completed his life long series of Maddonas with an oil painting called the Sistine Madonna around this time. He died in Rome on April 6, 1520 at the age of 37. Music was an important part in nearly every aspect of Renaissance life. With such emphasis on Renaissance lifestyle, many advancements in composing methods, genres, and instruments themselves were made to better accommodate this into daily life. The most important advancement in music was the invention and incorporation of polyphonic music. This was a type of music that was made up of several different melodies played simultaneously. This type of music was typically played for church and religious gatherings. By the end of the 16th century, Catholic and Protestant churches, training wealthy amateurs, and printing music were all ways for composers to make a living. Galilei was born in Tuscany in the late 1530's. His greatest contribution to the Renaissance was his effort to restore a working balance between music and poetry through the use of single-line vocal music. He was a very skilled lutenist and bass singer which he took advantage of through paid performances. In 1584, he produced a book containing lute compositions, 24 of which were dances. This book showed his preference of major and minor keys as apposed to the church mode. Galilei died in June of 1591. Dowland was born in 1563 in Dublin, Ireland. He moved to Paris and was appointed the professional lutenist for Sir Henry Cobham, the ambassador to the French court. In 1594, he moved to England and applied for a job as a lutenist for the English court which he did not get. It is thought that he did not receive this job because he was Roman Catholic where Queen Elizabeth and her court were Protestant. During his stay in England, he produced his first collection of music. It was the first English written collection of lute songs and the first to use the "table layout." This book was incredibly popular and was reprinted at least four times. Dowland died February 20, 1626. Byrd was born in London in 1543. He was a student of Thomas Tallis and was named organist and master of choristers of Lincoln Cathedral at the age of 20. In 1570, he was named a Gentlemen of the Chapel Royal where he and Tallis shared the organist position. Through the 1580's and 90's, Byrd's Catholicism was the main theme behind his music. Byrd's last songs were published in 1614, and he lived out his life in Stondon Massey, where he died in 1623. Tallis was born in England in 1505. His first musical obligation was as an organist in a Benedictine Priory in Dover. By 1537, Tallis was serving a London parish church as organist and in 1538 he was doing the same for the Abbey of Holy Cross. After a short clerkship at Canterbury Cathedral, Tallis joined the Chapel Royal, where he played, sang, and composed for the remainder of his life, serving leaders such as Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary Tudor, and Elizabeth I. Tallis died November 23, 1585 in London, England. The main fuel for exploration in the Renaissance period was the thought that unexplored lands held great riches and treasures. This was not what began the great age of exploration however. Originally, sea travel was used for transportation to and from Asia, where many spices and gems that were favored by the English could be found. Most new land was found by mistake, usually resulting in an attempt at a shorter route to already know destinations. The most driving force behind many expeditions was curiosity. Many leaders set up expeditions to find new lands to expand their territory and provide new places for their people to live. Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa around 1451. Columbus started studying mathematics, astronomy, cartography and navigation in hopes to start his own own voyage. He had an theory that sailing west would not only avoid the massive journey around Africa, but also make the entire trip easier and faster. This idea was criticized by anyone he presented it to until 1491. He presented his idea to the Spanish monarchs, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. On August 3, 1492 Columbus set sail from Spain and discovered the Caribbean, North and South America, and Panama. He died in Spain in 1506Nicolaus CopernicusNicolaus CopernicusBacon was born on January 22, 1561 in London, England. Cortes was born in 1485 in Medellín, Spain. In 1504, he left Spain and in hopes of finding riches in the "New World." In 1518, Cortez commanded his own expedition for Mexico. Upon his arrival, he became allies with some of the natives and used them to help conquer the natives who showed opposition. The Aztecs repelled his first attack but Cortez returned to defeat them in 1521. Cortez died in Spain in 1547. Cabot was born in Italy around 1450. His first voyage occurred in 1497, he traveled to modern day Canada and claimed it for England, mistaking it for Asian territory. The years following this are shrouded in mystery. Cabot set off for another expedition but the whereabouts are currently unknown. Some believe that Cabot and his crew were lost at sea while others believe that Cabot landed in North America with hopes of beginning a trade agreement with the natives. Da Gama was born in Sines, Portugal around 1460. His first voyage was commissioned by King John II of Portugal. Da Gama seized French ships as an act of vengeance against the French government for disrupting Portuguese shipping. In 1495, King Manual took the throne and assigned Da Gama the task of finding a direct trading route to India. By this time, Portugal had established itself as the primary naval power in Europe. Da Gama died in 1538 in India. During the Renaissance, artist created a new artistic concept known as realism. This concept focused greatly on the idea of perfecting the human body in art work. Artist would perform dissections on dead human bodies to better understand the internal anatomy of the human body. The idea of mathematics was also invented to more accurately represent realistic portraits of physical space. The ideas of weight, height, and measurement were created to give artists the ability to precisely match a sculpture exactly to a human body. Mathematics also paved the path for the idea of physics as well. Physics lead to the creation of many laws and rules about nature, many of which are still considered true today. Newton was born January 4, 1643, in Woolsthorpe, England. Newton attended the King's School in Grantham as a child while living with a local apothecary. He was introduced to the chemistry during his stay, but returned home to help his mother with farming. After realizing farming was not what interested him, he re enrolled in the King's School and finished his basic education. Newton enrolled at Cambridge and started something similar to a modern day work study plan. He later returned home due to Cambridge's closing caused by the Great Plague. During this time Newton developed a method of infinitesimal calculus, set foundations for his theory of light and color, and gained significant insight into the laws of planetary motion. Newton died March 20, 1727, at the age of 85. Galilei was born February 15, 1564 in Florence, Italy. He started to study math and made a living through minor teaching positions. During this time, he published his 20 year study on objects in motion called "The Little Balance." This bought him a small amount of fame and he received a teaching position at the University of Pisa in 1598. In 1604, Galilei published "The Operations of the Geometrical and Military Compass" and constructed a hydrostatic balance for measuring small objects. He also refined his theories on motion and falling objects, and developed the universal law of acceleration, which all objects in the universe obeyed. These inventions and ideas bought him additional income and fame. Galileo died in Arcetri, near Florence, Italy, on January 8, 1642, after suffering from a fever and heart palpitations. Napier was born in 1550 in Edinburgh, Scotland. Napier is credited with creating logarithms and the decimals’ modern notations. His technique was found to be very accurate and his work was translated into different languages and also widely printed. It also helped in trigonometric calculations in astronomy and navigation. Napier died April 4th, 1617. Kepler was born December 27, 1571 in Swabia, Germany. In 1576 his family moved to Leonberg where Kepler began his schooling first in the German School and later in the Latin School. Influenced by Michael Maestlin, Tübingen’s professor of mathematics, Kepler learned about the Ptolemaic system and the Copernican system of planetary motion. In 1609 he published "Astronomia Nova," which contained his first two laws on planetary motion. In 1619 he published "Harmonice Mundi"containing his third law and his derivation of the heliocentric distances of the planets. Kepler died in Regensburg, Germany on November 15, 1630 The primary idea behind Renaissance philosophy was the increase in interest behind Greek and Roman text and thought. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Greek and Roman texts were basically forgotten about until the beginning of the Renaissance. This made way for a new thought that explained basic human actions known as philosophy. Philosophy was broken down into three main categories: Aristotelianism, Humanism, and Platonism. Aristotelianism dealt mostly with ancient texts and ideas. Humanism dealt mainly with the thought processes of humans at the time. Platonism dealt mainly with the ideas of faith and religion. Descartes was born March 31, 1596, in La Haye, France. He attended The Jesuit College where he studied subjects such as rhetoric and logic and the “mathematical arts,” which included music and astronomy, as well as metaphysics, natural philosophy and ethics and later added theology and medicine to his studies.He is considered the father of modern philosophy because his ideas contradicted previous ideas that were based on feeling rather then science and mathematics. Descartes died in Stockholm, Sweden, on February 11, 1650. Bacon was born on January 22, 1561 in London, England. Bacon attended Trinity College, Cambridge, in April 1573, when he was 11 years old. After completing his studies at Cambridge, he enrolled at Honourable Society of Gray's Inn to study law. In March 1626, Bacon was performing a series of experiments with ice on the preservation of meat. During this experiment he developed bronchitis and soon died in London on April 9, 1626 Copernicus was born on February 19, 1473 in Torun, Poland. In 1491, Copernicus entered the University of Cracow, where he studied painting and mathematics. In 1496, Copernicus left Torun and traveled to Italy, where he then enrolled at University of Bologna to study law. After his studies at Bologna, he enrolled in the University of Padua to study medicine. In 1508, Copernicus began developing a heliocentric planetary system. This system placed the sun at the center of the universe rather than Earth. Copernicus died May 24, 1543 in Frauenburg, Poland More was born in London, England, in 1478. He attended St. Anthony's School in London as a child. More enrolled at Oxford University, where he spent two years learning Latin and formal logic, writing comedies, and studying Greek and Latin literature. In 1503, More moved to a monastery outside of London to become a monk. In 1504, he decided against being a monk and entered parliament to satisfy his sense of duty to serve his country. In April 1534, More refused to swear to Henry's Act of Succession and the Oath of Supremacy, essentially refusing to accept the king as head of the Church of England, which More believed would disparage the power of the pope. He was tried at the Tower of London on April 17, 1534, and was found guilty of treason. More was beheaded on July 6, 1535 in London.