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Josh Wilson

on 27 February 2013

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Transcript of Montenegro

Montenegro Geography Montenegro is on the coast of the Adriatic Sea; it is located in South-East Europe. It was part of the Yugoslavian empire until its collapse, and borders many of the former Yugoslavian territories. It borders 5 countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Serbia and Kosovo. It is positioned between latitudes 41 and 44 degrees North and longitudes 18 and 21 degrees East. Its area is little over 14000 km squared. It is noticeably one of the smallest countries, but the reasoning behind this lies in its history... Montenegro's 9 biggest cities in population order are: Podgorica ( The Capital): 156,169 Niksic: 57,278 Bijelo Polije: 23,105 Pljevlia:19,622 Herceg Novi: 19,617 Bar: 17,727 Cetinje: 14,166 Berane: 11,193 Rozaje: 9,567 Montenegro has 4 main national parks: Biogradska Gora is the oldest of the parks, being founded in 1878. Most of the park is covered in deep forest, with various micro-climates due to the sun exposure and the varying altitudes, and there is a huge glacial lake, Lake Biograd. These, partnered with the stream, Biogradsko, and the high annual rainfall, lead to massive biodiversity in the vegetation of the park. Bibliography: Lovcen NP is located on the Lovcen Mountain Range, and stretches over the river Rijeka Crnojevia. It is the smallest of the four national parks and has multiple mountains that are commonly climbed by mountaineers. It also features the small Skutari lake and overlooks the Boka Kotorska bay. It is infamous for its stunning views from the top of its peaks. Durmitor NP is perhaps the most famous of the four, and was formed by glaciers. It is traversed by rivers and underground streams. It also features the Tara river canyon, which has the deepest gorges in Europe. It has several dense pine forests, with lakes and endemic flora that intersperse them. In terms of animals, it contains many endangered species, from wolves to owls to wild cats. Lake Skadar National Park is a birdwatcher's idea of paradise. It boasts a large range of species of waterfowl, waders, pelicans and even eagles! Some of the most noteworthy species are: Southern Dalmatian Pelican; Pygmy Cormorants; Ibises; Egrets; Falcons and Eagles. It's also home to many other species like tortoises, lizards, snakes, amphibians and wild boar. (If you're lucky you may even see a wolf in the winter!) Lake Skadar used to connect to the sea, but tectonic plates moved, volcanoes formed and the sea level subsided. The Southern Dalmatian Pelican and
the Pygmy Cormorant History 500BC to the Middle Ages Montenegro was originally home to the Illyrians who lived there along with a few substantial Greek colonies as well as the Celts, who settled in parts of Montenegro in the 4th century BC. The Romans invaded and conquered the Illyrian kingdom. When the Roman empire divided into Roman and Byzantine, the line ran through Montenegro. After Roman decline, several invaders attacked Montenegro; most notably the Goths and the Avars. Afterwards, the Slavs settled in the 7th century and remained there in peace, in the land known as Duklja, until the Middle Ages. Climate and Terrain The Climate of Montenegro varies greatly, with the main difference being between the mountains and the lowlands. The average temperature is usually about 13 degrees celsius lower in the tallest mountains, in Durmitor National Park, than on the lowlands. In the winter, average temperature is usually close to 9 degrees, and the Mediterranean summer usually averages at 23 degrees. The terrain also changes a lot throughout Montenegro. As aforementioned, the mountains, which are some of the most rugged in Europe, and lowlands cover the majority of the country, with several lake terrains in the National Parks. There are also two huge plains, which now also host the two biggest cities in Montenegro. Middle Ages to Modern Day Montenegro became the Serbian Principality of Zeta in the 14th Century, and was under rule of the Ottoman Empire, but the mountains managed to prevent tight Ottoman control over Zeta, which was partly why it became a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the 1800s. It did, however, gain independance briefly, which started in 1878, and Prince Nicolas 1st was a self-declared King until the first world war. This was when Montenegro became part of the Allies, but defeated by Austro-Germans. The King fled the country and Montenegro was annexed into the Kingdom of the Serbs Crotes and Slovenes, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. Yugoslavia became a communist Republic, ruled by Josip Tito, who ruled it safely until he died in the 1980s. This was when Yugoslavia broke down into a ten year civil war, and the only two republics left in 2003 were Serbia and Montenegro, who became, literally, Serbia and Montenegro. (A loose federation) In May that year, Montenegro elected Filip Vujanovic as president, and he was pro for independence. Also, Milo Djukanovic had been an influence, and had been either president or prime minister from 1991 to 2006. In 2006, Montenegro narrowly passed a referendum to become the 192nd member of the united Nations! Post Independence Prime Ministers and Presidents President 2003 - Now Filip Vujanovic Prime Minister 2006-2008 Zeljko Sturanovic Prime Minister 2008-2010 Milo Djukanovic Prime Minister 2010-Now Igor Luksic A Map Showing Global Horizontal Irradiation Capital: Podgorica

Language: Montenegrin

Population: 632,621

Area: 13,810km squared People Ethnicity, Language and Religion 1931 Religion:
Serbian Orthodox
272,702 (80.88%)

Roman Catholics
26,070 (7.24%)

61,038 (16.96%)

Serbo-Croatian language
339,955 (90.13%)

Albanian language
18,098 (5.03%)

Total: 360,044 inhabitants The first census of the Kingdom
of Yugoslavia was the first official
census of Montenegro that could
be confirmed as correct. 1948 1953 Inhabitants of Montenegro, 1948 census

342,009 (90.67%)

19,425 (5.15%)

6,808 (1.8%)

6,707 (1.78%)

387 (0.1%)

1860 (0.52%)

Total: 377,189 inhabitants. Group "Others" include Slovenes (484), Germans (375), Russians (277), Italians (162), Roma (162), Macedonians (133), Czechs (93) and Hungarians (62)
Inhabitants of Montenegro, 1953 census

363,686 (86.61%)

23,460 (5.58%)

13,864 (3.3%)

9,814 (2.33%)

6,424 (1.52%)

2,625 (0.66%)

Total: 419,873 inhabitants 2011 Roma 6,251 (1.01%)
Croats 6,021 (0.97%)
Others 46,201 (7.44%) Montenegrins 278,865 (44.98%)
Serbs 178,110 (28.73%)
Bosniaks 53,605 (8.65%)
Albanians 30,439 (4.91%)
Muslims 20,537 (3.31%) Linguistic structure
Serbian: 265,895 (42.88%)
Montenegrin: 229,251 (36.97%)
Bosnian: 33,077 (5.33%)
Albanian: 32,671 (5.27%)
Rhoma: 5,169 (0.83%)
Bosniak: 3,662 (0.59%)
Croatian: 2,791 (0.45%)
Others: 47,513 (7.68%) Eastern Orthodox - 446,858 (72.07%)
Muslims - 118,477 (19.11%)
Catholic - 21,299 (3.44%)
Others 27,756 (5.38%) GDP: $4.55 billion

Life Expectancy: 74.3 years

Birth Rate: 1.228%

Death Rate: 0.92% Jobs and Industry The industry of Montenegro is mainly focussed around secondary industries. The only main business not based around secondary jobs is the tourism industry, whereas the other main industries are steelmaking, aluminium making, agricultural processing and consumer goods. There are little industries focussing around primary or quarternary, and the tertiary businesses are widespread, but with few companies in each sector. Famous People Milan Popovic - Musician Knez- Musician Bojan Bazelli - Actor Marina Abramovic - Performer Quality of Life Montenegro's quality of life index is 100.75, which is extremely good for a country. It has low living costs, and a good holiday length, with safety being rated 70 and health care at 50, but education is only free and compulsory between 7 and 15, which could be seen as a reason for the lack of the quaternary industry. Additionally, the costs of dining, transport, e.t.c are nearly all lower than that of Britain. It may not have the best economy, but it does have a great quality of life. Tourism and Culture Tourism The only main airport in Montenegro is Tivat Airport, but in Montenegro itself, there are many landmarks, but the majority of these are beaches or medival structures. From the Jaz Beach to the Swenska Beach, the South-Westerly coast is renowned for its beaches, with their white sand and picturesque views. Other popular tourist destinations in Montenegro are the medival cities, and their features. Bar is one of the most popular, but the monestaries and cathedrals in Cetinje, Savina and St Triphon. The Sveti Nikola Island is one of the most beautiful natural landmarks in the country, and Europe. Culture Cuisine: The most pivotal foods of Montenegro are homemade from local ingredients, such as bread, soup and seafood dishes. Their food is influenced by Italian culture from across the Adriatic Sea, Turkish mains through Serbia and sweet desserts from Croatia.

Laws: Two laws are bizarre, and one is ethically questionable.
The first is that when a couple marry, they must plant an olive tree on their wedding day. The second is a rule of vendetta. If one's family member is murdered, oneself must take revenge by killing the murderer or one of his close relatives.

Arts: There are two popular folk dances, the oro and the sota, and they both are dances for two people, but only the sota is accompanied by instruments. Also, there are poems called epic songs, which are huge battle poems that are accompanied by a one stringed instrument called a guslar, that are still recreationally used today. Conclusion I believe that Montenegro is an MEDC. This is because its industry is mainly secondary, which shows that it develops materials sourced from further away. This shows it can afford to import materials and export the products. Also, for a country of its size, it has a relatively good GDP, and its standard of living is exquisite. The rate of starvation and other causes of death from poverty are also at a low rate in Montenegro. It is a wealthy nation, however it is spending more on import each year, and earning less from export based on the 2011/2012 figures. It is still earning positive revenue, and its GDP is getting higher. As regards to the EU, Montenegro has applied to be a member of the EU, but hasnt yet been accepted. However, it is on track to becoming an EU nation. I think that the reason that Montenegro isn't already a member is because it is a new country that needed to become settled as a nation before it could join the EU. In 2012, it was told that it would be accepted if it increased its law standards by tackling fundamental freedom, a judicial reform and the fight against corruption. In particular, it needed to work on women's equality and media freedom. The EU have planned to decide between the 11th and the 14th of March. I believe it should be a member of the EU, because it is financially stable and has potential to be important for Europe's future.
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