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Syuhada Fadil

on 9 December 2012

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Transcript of Deixis

Presented by :
Nur Atira Husna Abd Rani (027121)
Noor Syuhada Md Fadil (027018) INTRODUCTION DEFINITION TYPES OF DEIXIS DEICTIC CENTER Comes from a Greek word meaning “pointing” or “indicating”.
Denotes to the occurrence of understanding the meaning of certain words and phrases in utterance entail the contextual information.
Introduces subjective, attentional, intentional and context-dependent properties into natural languages. INDEXICALITY BLS 4013

Types of Deixis
Deictic Center
Indexicality Traditional
Deixis Modern
Deixis TRADITIONAL DEIXIS : PERSON DEIXIS Deictic reference to the participant role of a referent.
Normally expressed by the pronouns, possessive affixes of nouns and the agreement affixes of verbs

Three distinctions:
- First person deixis
- Second person deixis
- Third person deixis Deictic reference that refers to the speaker or both the speaker and referent grouped with the speaker.

Exclusive first person deixis
- Me
- mine

Inclusive first person deixis.
- We
- ours FIRST PERSON DEIXIS SECOND PERSON DEIXIS Deictic reference to a person or persons identified as the addressee
- You
- Yourselves THIRD PERSON DEIXIS Deictic reference to a referent(s) not identified as the speaker or addressee.
- He
- they PLACE DEIXIS Deixis refers to the space or location that is relevant to the utterance.

- I like living in this country.
- Here is where we will place the book.
- She was standing over there. TIME DEIXIS Also known as temporal deixis
Concerns itself with the numerous times involved in and referred to in an utterance
- I am going there tomorrow.

Utterance might change according to time
- He went -> He had gone. MODERN DEIXIS Also known as the text deixis
Deictic reference to a portion of a discourse relative to the speaker’s recent “location” in the discourse

- This is a great story.
- That was an amazing day. Expression or speech act in which it occurs is refers as the deictic expression
- This is what phoneticians call "creaky voice."
[The utterance itself is spoken with creaky voice] TOKEN REFLEXIVE DEIXIS SWITCH REFERENCE a grammatical category SOCIAL DEIXIS Concerns the social information that is set within numerous expressions, such as relative social status and familiarity

Relational social deixis:
A deictic reference to some social characteristic of referent apart from any relative ranking of deictic reference to a social relationship between the speaker and addressee

- My husband
- Pronouns: (you, her) Absolute social deixis is contrasting with the relational social deixis
Include no ranking comparison of the speaker and addressee.

- Mr. President
- Your Honor THANK
YOU. CONCLUSION Deixis plays a special role in language learning, and is elaborated differentially in the languages of the world, making a typology of the major deictic categories an important item on the agenda for future research. Indexicality -> an intrinsic property of the signals, indeed it is an essential part of their adaptive role in an evolutionary perspective on communication – animals squeak and squawk because they need to draw attention to themselves or to some intruder (Hauser 1997).

Indexicality -> a phenomenon of language; it refers to the potential meanings that are implicitly attached to a word. For examples :

“I’m here now”

When one son returns home without the other son, the mother might ask, “Where’s Tony?” She may receive the response, “He fell down” (Green 1989: 8, 12). “A deictic center is a set of theoretical points that a deictic expression is ‘anchored’ to, such that the evaluation of the meaning of the expression leads one to the relevant point.”

(Wikipedia) DEICTIC CENTER (DC) In the journal entitled “Deictic Centers and the Cognitive Structure of Narrative Comprehension”, Rapaport W. J. stated that deictic terms include ‘come’ and ‘go’, ‘now’ and ‘then’, and ‘I’ and ‘you’.

When these words are used in face-to-face dialogues, their meanings depend on “the spatial-temporal co-ordinates of the act of utterance.”

These co-ordinates originate at a point we call the deictic center (DC), consisting of the “origin” of place (‘come’ and ‘go’), time (‘now’ and ‘then’), and person (‘I’ and ‘you’) (B¨uhler 1934, Fillmore 1975, Traugott 1978). We call the “origin” of place the WHERE, the “origin” of time the WHEN, and the “origin” of person the WHO.

Deictic terms occur in third-person narratives; there is a narrative DC consisting of a narrative WHO, a narrative WHEN, and a narrative WHERE. THE "WHERE" THE "WHEN" THE "WHO" The place in the world of the story from which the reader “perceives” the objects and events described in the narrative serves as “here” to the reader for the purpose of comprehending deictic references.

The narrative “here” functions in roughly the same way that the “here” of the real world does when a person engages in everyday conversation.

The WHERE serves the important function of constraining the domain of reference of the sentences to a particular locale in the world of the narrative. In addition to the WHERE, there is also a WHEN, identifying the narrative “now”.

The concept of a narrative “now” has been around for relatively longer than the narrative “here”.

According to some literary theory, within the narrative “now” one can establish the moment within which a particular event occurs (Chatman 1978). The WHEN constrains the relative time of the events referred to by the sentences. It has been recognized four types of psychological entities in a narrative—the focal WHO, non-focal characters, the focalizing WHO, and the narrating WHO—which differ according to the way the DC is constructed and manipulated, and whether or not it provides a subjective perspective through which the reader understands the narrative.

Examples :
1) George watched an old woman crossing the street. Then he watched some birds landing on the roof of the bank.
2) George watched an old woman crossing the street. Why was she striding so purposefully, looking neither to left or right?
3) I remember when I was a child, I liked to roller-skate.
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