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Volcanic Hazards

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by

Glenn Dolphin

on 22 February 2016

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Transcript of Volcanic Hazards

The Phenomenon
Remember plate tectonics?
Volcanic Hazards
The Hazard
Hazard mitigation
Volcanic regimes
Types of volcanoes
Volcanoes of the world: http://earth.rice.edu/mtpe/geo/geosphere/hot/volcanoes/volcanoes_b2.html

Hawaii: http://maps.unomaha.edu/Maher/plate/week13/mechanisms.html

Big island: http://www.marinebio.net/marinescience/02ocean/hwgeo.htm

Prevolcano seismicity: http://thewatchers.adorraeli.com/2013/05/01/increased-activity-at-tungurahua-volcano/

Volcano profiles: http://geogblogstudents.blogspot.com/2012/03/natural-hazards-geog3.html

Explosivity index: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volcanic_Explosivity_Index

Subduction profile: http://journals.hil.unb.ca/journalimages/GEOCAN/2006/Vol_33/No_04/geocan33_4ser01_fig3.jpg

Decompression melting: http://geochemistry.usask.ca/Bill/Courses/GOL%20101/HTML%20Presentation%20folder/Igneous%20Rocks/sld043.htm

Hot spot: http://www.geo.arizona.edu/geo5xx/geos577/projects/knutson/Hot%20Spot.htm

Krakatoa tsunami: http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/tsunamis

Volcano deformation: http://info.geonet.org.nz/display/volc/Monitoring+Methods
Subduction zones
Divergent plate boundaries
"Hot spots" not associated with narrow zones of deformation
Gas
Lava
Lava and water
Pyroclastic flows
Eruption
Eruptions and debris flows
Volcanic Ashe
Study volcanoes
Monitoring devices
Controlled experimentation
Just how good is prediction?
What do you think?
Write down what you know about volcanoes
Tsunami
What do you know now?
Take a moment to look at what you had written in the beginning and change or add some understandings.
Temperature
Gases
Ground deformation (GPS, tilt meters)
Seismic activity (seismometers)
Magma resonance (seismometers)
In 2000, 30,000 people evacuated from a a nearby volcano in Mexico, just prior to its erutpion.
24 October 2014
Cerro Negro (Columbia-Ecuador border)
4,300 earthquakes in a 24 hour period (many M4)
Local water sources contaminated by iron and sulfur
No good historical record
Evacuation of nearby 12,000 people

Explosive (phreatic) eruptions
Can form sufuric acid steam and hydrochloric acid steam
Seventy years ago, on May 10, 1924, a violent phreatic (steam) eruption began in Halema'uma'u that sent repeated columns of ash high into the sky. The explosions continued for 18 days, with the largest occurring on May 18. The steam explosions hurled rocks as large as eight tons as far as 0.6 miles from the crater; these blocks still surround Halema'uma'u. One of these blocks fatally injured a Mr. Taylor, who approached too close to the crater to take a photograph. The explosion that killed Mr. Taylor generated a 6,000-foot-tall column of ash.
Lake Nyos, Camaroon, 1986
1.6 cu km carbon dioxide gas
Carbon dioxid is not a poison
It is silent and scentless
Foces the oxygen out of the area
Suffocated 1800 people, 3500 livestock
Limnic eruption
large volumes of CO2 expelled from volcanic crater
Full transcript