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Consciousness

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Stephanie Wood

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Consciousness

Consciousness
Introduction
Methods
Neural Correlates
Consciousness and Memory
Hypnosis, Drugs, and Altered States of Consciousness
Conclusion
Kelsey Abernathy
Hannah Butterfield
Megan Taylor
Jeanette Wood
and its Neural Correlates
2 neuroimaging techniques:
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
2 approaches to discovering which “cortical systems” are used during consciousness
examine people who have lesions
examine normal activities in which consciousness is temporarily suspended
Methods (cont.)
Word-stem completion experiment
primed words produced faster than novel words
PET scans showed posterior processing areas had reduced activation for primed words vs. for novel words
previous exposure to the stimulus, later processing required less activation and was completed faster
Using fMRI, activation during word-stem completion occurred in left prefrontal regions
Priming
References
Consciousness and Memory (cont.)
"To remember an event is to be consciously aware now of something that happened on an earlier occasion" (Tulving, 1985)
Implicit memory vs. Explicit memory
Global workspace Theory
Consciousness and Memory (cont.)
Experiments and findings by De Loof et al. 2013 Schater et al. 1996 and 1998
Hypnosis, Drugs, and Altered States of Consciousness (cont.)
Prefrontal Parietal Network
Hippocampal formation
Age related differences
What is consciousness?
During Binocular rivalry all/part of one image appears totally
suppressed from consciousness
Binocular Rivalry
1) roll up some paper like a telescope.
2) look through it with your right eye & put your left hand next to the paper
The image seen through the paper roll will suppress a section of the hand.
Neural Correlates (cont.)
Consciousness may be mediated by sensation
Thalamus
Thalamocortical interconectivity
Conscious perception of stimuli
Sleep
Memory recall tasks
Prefrontal Parietal Network (PPN)
Posterior Cingulate Cortex
Inactive during visual task (periphery)

Altered states of consciousness must deviate from a baseline or normal conscious state, and be temporary and reversible
Psychoactive drugs take effect on the brain by mimicking or blocking naturally occurring endogenous substances involved in neural communication
The entire range of the conscious experience can be altered by both prescription and recreational drugs
Lack of a measurable scale and universally accepted definition of altered states of consciousness make it difficult to collect empirical data, especially on non-pharmaceutically included altered states through means like hypnosis.
(Tulving, 1985)
Crick, F. and Koch, C.(1990). Towards a neurobiological theory of consciousness. Seminars in the Neurosciences, 2, 263-275. doi: unavailable.

De Loof, E., Verguts, T., Fias, W., & Van Opstal, F. (2013). Opposite effects of working memory on subjective visibility and priming. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, And Cognition, 39(6), 1959-1965. doi:10.1037/a0033093

Edelman, G. M., Gally, J. A., & Baars, B. J. (2011). Biology of consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology, 2(4), 1-7. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.0004

John, R. (2003). A theory of consciousness. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(4), 244-250.

Llinas, R., Ribary, U., Contreras, D., & Pedroarena, C. (1998). The neuronal basis for consciousness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 353(1377), 1841-1849. doi: 10.1098/rstb.1998.0336

Moscovitch, M. (1995). Models of consciousness and memory. Consciousness, 1341-1356. doi: unavailable.

Pace-Schott & Hobson (2007). Altered States of Consciousness: Drug Induced States. Velmans, Max & Schneider, Susan. The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. (pp. 141-153). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing LTD.

Raichle, M. E. (1998). The neural correlates of consciousness: an analysis of cognitive skill learning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 353(1377), 1889-1901.

Revonsuo, A.(2009). Altered and exceptional states of consciousness. In Encyclopedia of consciousness.

Schacter, D. L., Buckner, R. L., & Koutstaal, W. (1998). Memory, consciousness and neuroimaging. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 353(1377), 1861-1878.

Schacter, D.L., Alpert, N.M., Savage, C.R., Rauch, S.L. & Alber, M.S. 1996. Conscious recollection and the human hippocampal formation: evidence from positron emission tomography. Proc.Natn.Acad.Sci. USA 93, 321-325. doi: unavailable.

Tannenbaum, A. S. (2006). Consciousness and the self-sensing brain: Implications for feeling and meaning. The American Journal of Psychology, 119(2) 205-222. doi:10.2307/20445335

Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology 26(1), 1-12. doi: Unavailable.

Wolfe, J. M., Kluender, K. R., & Levi, D. M. (2009) Sensation and perception (2nd ed.) Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
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