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Transcript of Consciousness
Consciousness and Memory
Hypnosis, Drugs, and Altered States of Consciousness
and its Neural Correlates
2 neuroimaging techniques:
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
2 approaches to discovering which “cortical systems” are used during consciousness
examine people who have lesions
examine normal activities in which consciousness is temporarily suspended
Word-stem completion experiment
primed words produced faster than novel words
PET scans showed posterior processing areas had reduced activation for primed words vs. for novel words
previous exposure to the stimulus, later processing required less activation and was completed faster
Using fMRI, activation during word-stem completion occurred in left prefrontal regions
Consciousness and Memory (cont.)
"To remember an event is to be consciously aware now of something that happened on an earlier occasion" (Tulving, 1985)
Implicit memory vs. Explicit memory
Global workspace Theory
Consciousness and Memory (cont.)
Experiments and findings by De Loof et al. 2013 Schater et al. 1996 and 1998
Hypnosis, Drugs, and Altered States of Consciousness (cont.)
Prefrontal Parietal Network
Age related differences
What is consciousness?
During Binocular rivalry all/part of one image appears totally
suppressed from consciousness
1) roll up some paper like a telescope.
2) look through it with your right eye & put your left hand next to the paper
The image seen through the paper roll will suppress a section of the hand.
Neural Correlates (cont.)
Consciousness may be mediated by sensation
Conscious perception of stimuli
Memory recall tasks
Prefrontal Parietal Network (PPN)
Posterior Cingulate Cortex
Inactive during visual task (periphery)
Altered states of consciousness must deviate from a baseline or normal conscious state, and be temporary and reversible
Psychoactive drugs take effect on the brain by mimicking or blocking naturally occurring endogenous substances involved in neural communication
The entire range of the conscious experience can be altered by both prescription and recreational drugs
Lack of a measurable scale and universally accepted definition of altered states of consciousness make it difficult to collect empirical data, especially on non-pharmaceutically included altered states through means like hypnosis.
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