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Phrase Structure

pedagogical grammar presentation
by

garim kim

on 29 January 2013

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Transcript of Phrase Structure

the The child ate some cookies. child ate some cookies Phrase structure rules Lexicon Underlying structure (i.e. tree diagrams) Rules of movement, addition, substitution, and deletion (i.e., mapping rules) Morphological rules Orthographic or phonological rules Surface structure NP (det)³ (AP) N (-pl) (PrepP) pro S (sm)ⁿ S' SUBJ PRED S' SUBJ PRED SUBJ NP 1 2 3 4 HIERARCHY AP (intens)ⁿ ADJⁿ (PrepP) 5 PrepP Prep NP 6 PRED AUX VP (Advl)ⁿ 7 Advl 8 Advl CL

Advl P

PrepP Internal structure of Noun Phrases Internal structure of Noun Phrases Internal structure of Noun Phrases Internal structure of Noun Phrases Internal structure of Noun Phrases Internal structure of Adverbials Advl CL adv sub S 9 Internal structure of Adverbials Chapter5. Introduction to Phrase Structure
&
Chapter6. More Phrase Structure Rules Garim Kim Advl P (intens)ⁿ ADV Internal structure of Adverbials 10 AUX Phrase structure rules for the Auxiliary 11 T

M -imper (pm) (perf) (prog) T 12 Phrase structure rules for the Auxiliary -PAST
-PRES perf have ...-en 13 prog be ...ing 14 15 NP' 16 Phrase structure rules for the Verb Phrase Phrase structure rules for the Auxiliary Phrase structure rules for the Auxiliary Object Noun Predicates VP cop

V NP
AP
PrepP (NP)² (PrepP) (det)³ (AP) N (-pl) (PrepP)

pro English : S-V-O language BUT! S-O-V, V-S-O exist Phrase structure rules
provide us with a parsing device to make explicit three important basic properties of sentence grammar:linearity, hierarchy, and categoriality.
(Jacobs, 1995:34 ff.) Perhaps the man works at home.

The man works at home. I love you HOW TO TEACH ?? Unscrambling! for beginning level a. you, i, hate
b. lunch, going, we, have, are, to
c. letter, she, a, sent, yesterday
d. they, London, last week, traveled Some very lazy workers of the store were fired. very, very expensive rings in the town Susan traveled when they worked. Perhaps S sm SUBJ PRED S' the man works at home Mistakes Different language structures
cause Marge my wife is. Want I to buy a motorcycle. -Five sentence patterns by C. T. Onions (1904) 1. Subject + Verb
2. Subject + Verb + Complement
3. Subject + Verb + Object
4. Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object
5. Subject + Verb + Object + Complement English education in Korea 我爱你 I love you I you love CONTENTS 1. WHY WE TEACH PHRASE STRUCTURE
2. STRUCTURE RULES
3. HOW TO TEACH PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES sentence modifier
(perhaps, maybe, yes, no..) subject predicate noun phrase determiner
(all, the, many, other, his..) adjective
phrase plural prepositional phrase pronoun S SUBJ PRED NP det AP N -pl PrepP some very lazy worker of the store were fired NP (det)³ (AP) N (-pl) (PrepP) pro Internal structure of Noun Phrases NP' NP
AP
PrepP determiner
(all, the, many, other, his..) adjective
phrase plural prepositional phrase pronoun Let's practice! Many famous singers of U.S. are performing. Make tree diagram p. 84~85 intensifier intensifier adjective noun determiner AP noun -pl prepP predicate AP intens ADJ intens very very expensive preposition NP intensifier adjective prepositional phrase auxiliary verb phrase
constituent adverbial S SUBJ N NP AUX VP Advl PRED traveled when they worked Susan SUBJ
(noun) Auxiliary, VP (past tense) Advl adverbial clause adverbial phrase prepositional phrase She exercised when they arrived at home.

She exercised really hard

She exercised in the gym adverbial clause prepositional phrase adverbial phrase S SUBJ pro NP AUX VP Advl PRED exercised She arrived at home Advl CL adv sub S SUBJ PRED NP pro AUX VP when they S SUBJ pro NP AUX VP Advl PRED exercised She Advl P intens ADV really hard S SUBJ pro NP AUX VP Advl PRED exercised She Prep P prep NP N in the gym She exercised when they arrived at home.

She exercised really hard.

She exercised in the gym adverbial clause prepositional phrase adverbial phrase In sentence-final adverbials, prepositions are used to give adverbial function to nouns with temporal or locative meaning. (p.87) Max will stay until Monday



Mr.Green works at home prep N



prep N Structure Variation in Prepositional Phrases I'll get the wine (on) Thursday.




Jack went home. prepositions are optionally deletable prepositions do not occur before certain nouns that function adverbially Sentence should select one of the choices choices optional manner adverbial : John runs quickly.
direction adverbial : John ran to the store.
position adverbial : John is at home.
time adverbial : Judy eats lunch at noon.
frequency adverbial : Judy eats lunch every day.
purpose adverbial : Harry works to earn money.
reason adverbial : Harry works because he has to pay bills. auxiliary tense





modal phrasal modal perfect progressive imperative noun S SUBJ PRED NP det AP N -pl PrepP many famous singer of U.S. are performing 1 minute! 1) Aux T
John had to have been writing a book.

2) Aux M
John should have been writing a book.

3) Aux imperative
Write a book! S SUBJ N NP AUX PRED John VP T pm perf prog -past have to have be-en V NP write -ing det N a book Jennifer is a lovely girl S SUBJ N NP VP PRED Jennifer AUX T -pres cop NP be det ADJ N a girl 4 I named the dog Brownie. S SUBJ pro NP VP PRED I AUX T -past V NP name NP' NP the dog Brownie det N N NP' NP Syntactic Roles of NPs in PRED direct objects : Jim read
indirect objects : Sara gave some flowers.
objects of prepositions : Same lives in a book. me a big house. adverbial subordinator intensifier adverb Syntactic Roles of Prepositional Phrases Prepositional phrases can be generated as parts of noun phrases, verb phrases, adjective phrases, adverbials, or object noun predicates. be + PrepP intransitive(or ditransitive) verb + PrepP predicates something of the subject NP complete the argument structure of a verb John is in his room The baby lay in the crib Discussion
Do we have to teach
all these structure rules? How can we teach
the rules effectively? Thanks! p90~92 sm S' SUBJ PRED copula as a noun with a plural inflection :
as a noun with up to three determiners :
as a noun with a preceding adjective phrase :
as a noun with a following prepositional phrase :
as a noun with various combinations of the above options: books, children
all his other money
a very blue sky
a man of honor

the famous city of New York
all the little children
many very colorful Jack-o-lanterns Korean, Japanese, Turkish, Farsi.. Hebrew, Arabic, Irish, Welsh, Breton.. LINEARITY S-V-O CATEGORIALITY Lexical categories
-Countable noun
(child or cookie)
→ -Transitive verbs
(eat, buy, want..)
Phrasal categories
(noun, verb,
prepositional phrases) Perhaps sm SUBJ PRED S' the man S works at home NP det N His very cute, small kitten NP det AP N intens ADJ the very old man NP det AP N ADJ ADJ his very cute small kitten det AUX VP Advl PRED left Advl CL adv sub S SUBJ PRED NP AUX VP before their father det N could find them Ordering of Sentence-Final Adverbials Adverbials of Manner, Direction, and Position 1. Direction and manner have variable order with respect to each other
2. Manner and position have variable order with respect to each other
3. Direction tends to precede position, and they tend to be adjacent. quickly around the track at the park

around the track at the park quickly

around the track quickly at the park direction position manner manner direction position direction manner position Gaby is allergic to cats copula AP PRED AUX VP T -pres cop AP ADJ PrepP Prep NP to N cat -pl be allergic We elected Sam treasurer. V NP NP direct Object NPs object predicates Sentence Derivation Sheila ate the cookies. S SUBJ PRED NP N Sheila AUX VP T -past eat V NP det N the cookie -pl (1) output : Sheila -past eat the cookie -pl (2) copy s/t : Sheila -past [+ 3 + sg] eat the cookie -pl (3) morphological rules : Sheila ate the cookies PrepP in VP subject noun predicate : Jan is
object noun predicate : We elected Sam a teacher. treasurer. Perhaps the boys left
before their father
could find them. AP lovely p104~106 Adverbials of Time and Frequency 1. Time and frequency tend to follow manner, direction, and position
2. Time and frequency are variable in order with respect to each other

She eats lunch quickly (everyday at noon
/ at noon every day) Adverbials of Purpose and Reason 1. Purpose and reason tend to follow all other adverbials.
2. Purpose tends to precede reason She eats lunch quickly every day
in order to have time to read.
because she likes to have time to read. intens
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