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China Turns Communist

World History Cold War Jigsaw Period 6 By Austin Leung and Lucas Morrell

Austin Leung

on 29 April 2010

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Transcript of China Turns Communist

Double click anywhere & add an idea Commuists Take Power In China By Austin Leung and Lucas Morrell
Period 6
Chapter 17 Section 2
In WWII, China fought with Allies
China didn't gain much
Japan had devasted most of its cities
Cvilian death toll= 10-22 million
2nd only to Soviet Union
In 1945, Chinese fought against Chinese Mao Zedong= Communist leader
Mobilized peasants in northern China to fight Japanese
Used guerilla warfare
Promote literacy and improve food production --> control northern China by 1945
Jiang Jieshi= Nationalist leader
Dominated southern China
Money given by United States went into the hands of a few corrupt officers
Nationalists didn't fight Japanese much
Saved strentgth for following renewal of civil war World War II Memorial Communist China poster
Before Japan invaded in 1937, civil war raged between Communists and Nationalists
Civil war renewed from 1946 - 1949
Nationalist winning, because of 3:1 troop advantage
US supported Nationalists
Didn't win over popular Chinese support
As economy collapsed, Nationalists --> Communists
In spring 1949, China's major cities fell to Red forces
Nationalists flee to south, Taiwan (Furmosa)
By October 1949, Mao gained control of country
Proclaimed People's Republic of China
Angered US when Mao gained control of China and signed treaty with Soviet Union
Two separate Chinas inspired and intensified Cold War
US set up Nationalist government on Taiwan
Called Republic of China
Soviets supported Communist China
Gave financial, military, and tehcnical aid
In return, pledged to come to each other's defense if attacked
US tried to halt Soviet expansion in Asia
Map of China Map of Taiwan with insert of China
Joseph Stalin + Mao Zedong
China expanded into Tibet, India, southern/inner Mongolia, northern/outer Mongolia
In 1950 and 1951, China took over Tibet
Promised autonomy to Tibetians
Dalai Lama (Tibet's religous leader) fled to India
India welcomed refugees after failed revoult in 1959
Incresed tension between India and China
In 1962, fought over unclear border Dali Lama
Communist strengthened rule over its 550 million people
Restore China as powerful nation
Communist party= 4.5 million members
Made up only 1% of population
Set up parallel organizations: Communist party + national government
Mao shaped China's economy based on Marxist socialism
Took land from landlords and killed ones that resisted
Redistributed land among peasants
Later on, created collective farms
In 1953, Mao launched 5-year plan
By 1957, China's output of coal, cement, steel, and electricity increased
Collective farm Great Leap Forward= plan that called for larger collective farms (communes)
Tried to expand success of first 5-year plan in 1958
Government controlled everything
Great Leap Forward= giant step backward
Program ended in 1961 after crop failures caused famime
Killed 20 million people
In late 1950s, China faced external and internal problems
Cooperation with Soviets faded because each wanted to lead worldwide Communist movement
Later on, Mao reduced role in government
Leaders move away from strict socialist ideas Great Leap Forward poster In 1966, Mao determined to revive revolution
Urged young people to "learn revolution by making revolution"
High school and college students form Red Guard (militia units)
Led to major uprising= Cultural Revolution
Goal= establish society of peasants and woekers where everyone is equal
Life of the mind= useless and dangerous
Shut down colleges and schools
Target people who resisted and purify others
Many people executed or imprisoned
Eventually, got out of hand and Mao wanted it to stop by 1968
Army put down Red Guard
Zhou Enlai (Chinese Communist party founder and premier) restored order Red Guard propaganda poster
Bing Images
Purple World History Textbook
Full transcript